К/р №6 по англ, вар 3 (Business Organisations)

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Вариант 3
1. Перепишите следующие предложения и письменно переведите их на русский язык. При переводе обратите внимание на место предлога в русском языке:
1. Nobody likes to be laughed at.
2. He has never been heard of since the accident.
3. The conference is much talked about.
4. His books are often referred to in scientific papers.
5. He can′t keep his words, so he can′t be relied on.
6. These terms were insisted on by our manager.

2. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения. Обратите внимание на место Participle II в качестве определения и способы его перевода:
1. Closely-connected enterprises have developed good relationships.
2. The number of engineers hired by this company has increased two times.
3. Packed in strong cases, the goods arrived in good condition.
4. The sellers refused to reduce the prices quoted and the buyers declined the offer.
5. The questions discussed at the conference are very important.

3. Перепишите следующие предложения; выделите в них придаточные предложения, подчеркните их и определите тип. Предложения переведите:
1. Interest is the price people pay when they borrow money.
2. A typical e-commerce begins when you browse through a website and select an item you want to buy.
3. The man you are speaking about is our sales manager.
4. Companies can address business problems to India and China that they couldn`t solve in their home markets.
5. The bank in turn lends the deposited money to customers who need capital.
6. The official currency of the UK is the pound sterling, which is equal to one hundred pence.

4. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на порядок слов в придаточных предложениях:
1. Never have I worked so hard in all my life.
2. Seldom have I seen such a good logistics manager.
3. Had the economic climate been more favourable, our e-commerce industries would have expanded massively.

5. Перепишите следующие предложения. Укажите, в каком значении употребляются в них глаголы should/would. Предложения переведите:
1. If they had listened to their customers′ comments, they would have been able to improve their services.
2. Our company should develop open and honest relationships between managers and employees.
3. It is required that all employees should wear the uniform.
4. It would be a mistake to think that they are unaware of the fact.
5. It is important that the staff should have a lot of control over their work.
6. Private companies insisted that certain restriction should be placed on the transfer of shares.

6. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык приводимый ниже текст:
Business Organisations
Business organisations belong to either the private or the public sector. The private sector consists of companies belonging to private individuals, and the public sector of companies owned by the government of the country.
The private sector
There are various types of business organisation which operate in the private sector:
1. Sole traders
A business run by a sole trader has just one owner, who is entirely responsible for all the company′s business affairs. This type of organisation has certain advantages and disadvantages. The sole trader doesn′t have to consult anyone else when making decisions. The profits do not have to be shared with anyone else. A sole trader has to bear 100 % of the risks incurred by his company. For this reason, he may have more difficulties raising capital. A sole trader has unlimited liabilityfor his company, which means that if he goes bankrupt, he may lose both his company and his personal property.
2. Partnerships
A business run by a partnership has two or more owners. When entering into a partnership, an agreement is drawn up defining the rights, responsibilities and liabilities of each partner, ....

Дополнительная информация

2. Partnerships
A business run by a partnership has two or more owners. When entering into a partnership, an agreement is drawn up defining the rights, responsibilities and liabilities of each partner, such as how the profits are to be distributed and what part each partner is to play in managing the company. The partners may be active, meaning that they are actively involved in the company′s business; or sleeping, which means they invest money in the company and receive a share of the profits, but do not concern themselves with the company′s business affairs.
There are two types of partnership:
General or ordinary partnership, where all partners have unlimited liability.
Limited or special partnership, consisting of at least one general partner with unlimited liability and at least one limited partner whose liability is limited to the capital he has invested. The limited partners do not run the risk of losing their personal property if the company goes bankrupt, but neither do they have any say in how the business is run.
3. Joint-stock companies
From a legal point of view, a joint-stock company counts as a separate person, which means that its shareholders (owners) and directors (the people chosen by the shareholders to run the company) only have limited liability. The shareholders each receive one dividend (part of the profit) per share. There are two types of joint-stock company:
(a) Public limited company (plc)
The capital for this type of company is raised from members of the public. For this reason, a plc can be listed on the stock exchange, although it doesn′t have to be. Before it can start doing business, a pic needs to have a minimum amount of share capital (in England for example, it needs to issue at least £50,000 worth of shares).
(b) Private limited company (Ltd.)
There are many more private limited companies than public limited companies. The shares of a private limited company are held by specially chosen persons or companies, which means it can′t be listed on the stock exchange. However unlike public limited companies, private limited companies don′t need a minimum amount of share capital – it′s theoretically possible for a private limited company to have just one share held by one person.
The public sector
As we know, firms in the public sector are owned by the government, one example being the post office. However, in certain countries, notably in Britain, there is a trend towards privatisation or selling certain government-owned organisations such as the railway and telephone companies back to the private sector. This has both positive and negative aspects.
As firms active in these privatised industries may find themselves in competition with other firms, it is in their interest to make the services provided more efficient, which benefits the customer.
The money raised can be used to reduce taxes.
As firms in the private sector are mainly interested in making a profit, privatisation may make certain services more expensive for the customer. Necessary services may not be provided because they aren′t profitable.
Companies in the public sector have certain similarities to public limited companies. However, there are a few important differences:
• While public limited companies are owned by the public, public sector companies are owned by the government.
• The chairman of a pic is chosen by the shareholders, whereas the chairman of a public sector company is chosen by the government.
• A pic obtains capital by selling shares, a public sector company by selling stocks.
• The profits earned by a pic go to the shareholders, the profits earned by a public sector company go back to the government.
• Where the main objective of a pic is to make the largest possible profit, public sector companies are created primarily to provide the public with essential services.


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