Контрольная по английскому №2. Вариант 4.

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Вариант 4

I. Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите, является ли подчеркнутая форма инфинитивом, причастием или герундием. Переведите письменно предложения на русский язык.
Example: The falling water has kinetic energy. Falling – Причастие I. Падающая вода обладает кинетической энергией.
1. Though first developed for military purposes radar can be used in modern cars.
2. By using this device, we are able to make new kinds of experiment.
3. The elements possessing this property make the experiment impossible.
4. The progress of electronics to have resulted in the invention of electronic computers was a breakthrough of the second part of the 20th century.
II. Раскройте скобки, используя Participle I или Participle II. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
Example: (Heat) magnet loses some of its magnetism. – Heated magnet loses some of its magnetism.
1. The device (produce) in the laboratory was portable.
2. Early computers (use) vacuum tubes could perform computations in milliseconds.
3. Now computers are arrays of integrated circuits (build out) of pieces of silicon.
4. The (penetrate) power and other characteristics of X-rays make them extremely useful in medicine.
III. Перефразируйте данные сложные предложения, употребив независимый причастный оборот. Переведите письменно полученные предложения.
Example: As the weather was fine, we went for a walk. – The weather being fine, we went for a walk. – Так как погода была хорошая, мы пошли гулять.
1. If the temperature increases, the resistivity of the semiconductor decreases.
2. When the research work was fulfilled, we decided to publish the results.
3. When the first communications satellite was launched, the satellite wireless industry exploded.
IV. Прочитайте и перепишите следующие предложения. Определите, к какому типу условного предложения относится каждое из них. Переведите письменно предложение.
Example: Ice will turn into water if you heat it. – Условное предложение I типа. – Лед превратится в воду, если его нагревать.
1. If an Integrated services Digital Network (ISDN) is developed in our country, the subscribers will have the complete spectrum of telecommunications services.
2. The machine wouldn’t have been broken if all the safety measures had been taken.
3. The reaction wouldn’t proceed if we didn’t add some water.
4. Global communication and computer networks would become more and more a part of professional and personal lives if the price of microcomputer and network access dropped.

Работа над текстом.

I. Read the text. Then read the titles. Which of the following titles is the best?
a. Space Satellites.
b. Global Positioning System.
c. Segments of Global Positioning System.
d. Radio-Navigation Systems.
Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based radio-navigation system, consisting of 24 satellites and ground support. GPS provides users with accurate information about their position and velocity, as well as the time, anywhere in the world and in all weather conditions.
GPS, formally known as the Navstar Global Positioning System, was initiated in 1973.1________. GPS satellites carry atomic clocks that provide extremely accurate time. The time information is placed in the codes broadcast by the satellite so that a receiver can continuously determine the time the signal was broadcast. The signal contains data that a receiver uses to compute the locations of the satellites and to make other adjustments needed for accurate positioning. The receiver uses the time difference between the time of signal reception and the broadcast time to compute the distance, or range, from the receiver to the satellite. The receiver must account for propagation delays, or decreases in the signal´s speed caused by the ionosphere and the troposphere. With information about the ranges to three satellites and the location of the satellite when the signal was sent, the receiver can compute its own three-dimensional position.

Дополнительная информация

An atomic clock synchronized to GPS is required in order to compute ranges from these three signals. However, by taking a measurement from a fourth satellite, the receiver avoids the need for an atomic clock. 2_______.GPS comprises three segments: the space, control, and user segments. The space segment includes the satellites and the Delta rockets. GPS satellites fly in circular orbits at an altitude of 20,100 km (12,500 mi) and with a period of 12 hours. The orbits are tilted to the earth´s equator by 55 degrees to ensure coverage of polar regions.3________. Each satellite contains four atomic clocks.
The control segment includes the master control station in Colorado, and monitor stations in the Atlantic, Indian and South Pacific Oceans. These stations monitor the GPS satellites. The control segment uses measurements collected by the monitor stations to predict the behavior of each satellite´s orbit and clock. The prediction data is uplinked, or transmitted, to the satellites for transmission to the users. 4________.
The user segment includes the equipment of the military personnel and civilians who receive GPS signals. With more than 500,000 GPS receivers, the civilian community has its own large and diverse user segment. Surveyors use GPS to save time over standard survey methods.5_______. GPS tracking systems are used to route and monitor delivery vans and emergency vehicles. In a method called precision farming, GPS is used to monitor and control the application of agricultural fertilizer and pesticides. GPS is available as an in-car navigation aid and is used by hikers and hunters. It is also used on the Space Shuttle. Because the GPS user does not need to communicate with the satellite, GPS can serve an unlimited number of users.

II. Read the text again. Choose the best sentence from the list below to complete each gap.
1. We know that the atom is mostly empty space with a minute central nucleus some tens of thousands of times smaller than the atom.
2. Powered by solar cells, the satellites continuously orient themselves to point their solar panels toward the sun and their antennae toward the earth.
3. GPC is used by aircraft and skips for en route navigation and for airport or harbor approaches.
4. GPC determines location by computing the difference between the time that a signal is sent and the time it is received.
5. That makes it possible to send signals long distances, and in the XX century the world was united without wires.
6. Thus, the receiver uses four satellites to compute latitude, longitude, altitude, and time.
7. The control segment also ensures that the GPC satellite orbits and clocks remain within acceptable limits.

III. Choose the best answer to these questions according to the text.
1. What are the constituent parts of Global Positing System?
a) solar cells, solar panels,
b) latitude, longitude, altitude, and time,
c) 24 satellites and ground support.
2. When was GPC initiated?
a) in 1973,
b) in 1955,
c) in 1971.
3. What is the way to avoid the need for an atomic clock?
a) to use a code,
b) to take a measurement from a fourth satellite,
c) to account for propagation delays.
4. Why are the orbits of GPC satellites titled to the earth’s equator?
a) to avoid the need for an atomic clock,
b) to orient themselves to point their solar panels, toward the sun and their antennae toward the earth,
c) to ensure coverage of polar regions.
5. What segment is necessary to predict the behavior of each satellite’s orbit and clock?
a) the space segment,
b) the control segment,
c) the user segment.

IV. Here are some dictionary definitions of words from the text. Each word has more than one definition. Choose the definition that fits each of the words in the text best.
1. time
a. the passing of all the days, months, and years, taken as a whole;
b. occasion.
2. receiver
a. person who receives,
b. part of an apparatus for receiving smth.


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