Контрольная по английскому №4

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Упражнение 1
Прочитайте и переведите текст
Income and Spending
I People´s incomes determine how many of the economy´s goods
and services they can purchase. Income is the money a person receives in
exchange for work or property. It should be noted that any person engaged
in business is not paid a fixed sum for his activities. There are five
essential types of income:
1. Employee compensation is the income earned by working for others. It
includes wages and fringe benefits such as health and accident insurance.
2. Proprietor compensation is the income that self-employed people earn.
3. Corporation profit is the income corporations have left after paying all
the expenses.
4. Interest is the money received by people and corporations for depositing
their money in savings account or lending it to others.
5. Rent is income from allowing others to use one´s property temporarily.
The total income is the sum of employee and proprietor compensation,
corporation profit, interest and rent. In each category, people receive this
income in return for providing goods or services.
II One other type of income is a transfer payment - money one person or
group gives to another, though the receiver has not provided a specific
good or service. Gifts, inheritances, and aid to the poor are three examples
of transfer payments.
During this century, the percentage of people who work for themselves has generally declined. Increasingly, people are employees and not selfemployed.
By the type of work people do workers fall into one of four broad categories:
1. White-collar workers are people who do jobs in offices, such as
secretaries, teachers, and insurance agents.
2. Blue-collar workers are people who do jobs in factories or outdoors.
Artisans, such as carpenters and plumbers, are blue-collar workers.
3. Service workers provide services to other individuals or businesses.
Janitors, barbers, and police are service workers.
4. Farm workers are people who work on their own farms or those of others.
III In the market system a person´s income is determined by how the
market values that person´s resources and skills. Individuals, such as doctors,
whose skills society values, receive high incomes. People who own valuable
resources, such as capital to invest or land to develop, also receive high
Income is not the same as wealth. Wealth is any resource that can be
used to produce income. An individual´s possessions, such as a house, a car,
or a stereo, are part of that person´s wealth. Each of these could be sold to
produce income. Savings accounts and corporation stocks are types of
wealth that usually produce income. Labour skills are not counted because
they are difficult to measure. In addition, an individual´s debts are
subtracted from personal wealth. A person with many valuable
possessions but many debts may have no more wealth than a person with a few possessions but no debts.
IV People with similar incomes may have very different amounts of
wealth. Consider two women who receive an income of $25,000 a year.
One earns all of her income working at a bank. The other receives her
$25,000 income from dividends on stock worth $250,000. Aside from the
stock the second woman owns, the possessions and debts of the two are similar. The difference in stock ownership, though, is large. The second
woman is much wealthier than the first woman.
When individuals receive any income, whether as allowance, pay
cheque, or gift, most of that income is spent. Spending becomes income for
someone else. The money each individual spends multiplies throughout the
economy as others receive and spend parts of it. In addition, the choice
you and others make can lead to investment spending. More things are
made and more places are built. Thus spending results in changes
throughout the economy.
Упражнение 2
Переведите следующие слова из текста.

Дополнительная информация

Throughout, major source, employee, proprietor, transfer , determine,
purchase, vary, transfer, inheritance, possession, measure, debt, allowance,
reward, utilise, collar, proprietorship, colour.
Упражнение 3
Найдите английским словосочетаниям русский перевод (1-17)
1. transfer payments A Снизить расходы на ч-л (обогрев)
2. to be self-employed B Утилизировать ежедневные отходы
3. to buy into the firm C Проценты по сбережениям
4. fringe benefits D Предоставить ч-л завознаграждение
5. to pay a fixed wage E Заработать ч-л в качестве прибыли
6. interest on savings F Деловые издержки
7. the month´s rent and utilities G Купить часть фирмы
8. to cut down on smth. (heat H Владеть средствами, фондами,активами
9. subtract debts from I Передаточные платежки
10. expenses of a business J Владеть собственностью
11. health and accident K Дополнительные выплаты, льготы
12. to utilise the refuse of daily L Платить фиксированную заработную плату
13. to provide smth. for a M Страхование от болезней и несчастного случая
14. corporation stock N Работать на себя, не по найму
15. employee and proprietor O Кварплата и коммунальные платежи за месяц

16. to earn smth as return on P Акционерный капитал корпорации/корпоракивная акция
17. to own the property Q Вычесть долги из личного капитала

Упражнение 4
Соедините слова из правой колонки со словами из левой колонки и
получите словосочетания из текста.
Проверьте правильность соединения по тексту.

1 – a fixed a. account
2 – the total b. wealth
3 - the market c. spending
4 - saving d. system
5 - provide e. compensation
6 - do f. jobs
7 – person’s g. income
8– investment h. Profit
9 - corporation i. services
10 – proprietor j. sum

Упражнение 5
Ответьте на следующие вопросы по тексту:
Напишите ответы на вопросы, начиная ответ с одной из
приведенных ниже фраз:
I suppose ...; The idea behind the expression ... is that...;
It is essential to ...; To sum up what has been mentioned...;
It´s like this....; It is impossible to decide whether...;

1. What is the difference between employee and proprietor compensation?
2. How does a corporation determine the amount of its profit?
3. What is understood by interest income?
4. Why is rental income connected with ownership of a property?
5. How does a transfer payment differ from all other sources of income?
6. What is the difference between a blue-collar worker and a white-collar
7. What are the basic sources of people´s incomes?
8. What are the four types of work people do?
9. What determines how income is distributed in a market system?
10. What evidence shows that a gap exists between the rich and the poor?
11. What is the multiplier effect of spending?
12. What effect would an increase in demand for shoes have on total
investment spending?

Упражнение 6
Напишите правильные (Т) неправильные (F) следующие
предложения из текста
Например: 1. Employee compensation isn’t the income earned by
working for others. (F)
2. Proprietor compensation isn’t the income that self-employed people earn.
3. Corporation profit is the income corporations have left after paying all
the expenses.
4. Interest is the money received by people and corporations for depositing
their money in savings account or lending it to others.
5. Rent is income from allowing others to use one´s property temporarily.
6. The total income isn’t the sum of employee and proprietor
compensation, corporation profit, interest and rent.
7. White-collar workers are people who do jobs in factories or outdoo


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