Перевод текста INTERNET SECURITY + задания
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The Internet provides a wide variety of opportunities for communication and development, but unfortunately it also has its dark side.
Crackers, or black-hat hackers, are computer criminals who use technology to perform a variety of crimes: virus propagation, fraud, intellectual property theft, etc.
Internet-based crimes include scam, email fraud to obtain money or valuables, and phishing, bank fraud, to get banking information such as passwords of Internet bank accounts or credit card details. Both crimes use emails or websites that look like those of real organizations.
Due to its anonymity, the Internet also provides the right environment for cyberstalking, online harassment or abuse, mainly in chat rooms or newsgroups.
Piracy, the illegal copying and distribution of copyrighted software, information, music and video files, is widespread.
But by far the most common type of crime involves malware.
MALWARE: VIRUSES, WORMS, TROJANS AND SPYWARE
Malware (malicious software) is software created to damage or alter the computer data or its operations. These are the main types.
Viruses are programs that spread by attaching themselves to executable files or documents. When the infected program is run, the virus propagates to other files or programs on the computer. Some viruses are designed to work at a particular time or on a specific date, e.g. on Friday 13. An email virus spreads by sending a copy of itself to everyone in an email address book.
Worms are self-copying programs that have the capacity to move from one computer to another without human help, by exploiting security flaws in computer networks. Worms are self-contained and don’t need to be attached to a document or program the way viruses do.
Trojan horses are malicious programs disguised as innocent-looking files or embedded within legitimate software. Once they are activated, they may affect the computer in a variety of ways: some are just annoying, others are more ominous, creating a backdoor to the computer which can be used to collect stored data. They don’t copy themselves or reproduce by infecting other files.
Spyware, software designed to collect information from computers for commercial or criminal purposes, is another example of malicious software. It usually comes hidden in fake freeware or shareware applications downloadable from the Internet.
Don’t open email attachments from unknown people; always take note of the file extension.
Run and update antivirus programs, e.g. virus scanners.
Install a firewall, a program designed to prevent spyware from gaining access to the internal network.
Make backup copies of your files regularly.
Don’t accept files from high-risk sources.
Use a digital certificate, an electronic way of proving your identity, when you are doing business on the Internet. Avoid giving credit card numbers.
Don’t believe everything you read on the Net. Have a suspicious attitude toward its contents.
6 1. Identify the Internet crimes sentences (1-6) refer to. Then match them with the advice below (a-f). сопоставить и предложить решение проблемы.
1. Crackers try to find a way to copy the latest game or computer program.
2. A study has revealed that half a million people will automatically open an email they believe to be from their bank and happily send off all their security details.
3. This software’s danger is hidden behind an attractive appearance. That’s why it is often wrapped in attractive packages promising photos of celebrities like Anna Kournikova or Jennifer Lopez.
4. There is a particular danger in Internet commerce and emails. Many people believe they have been offered a special gift only to find out later they have been deceived.
5. ‘Nimda’ spreads by sending infected emails and is also able to infect websites, so when a user visits a compromised website, the browser can infect the computer.
6. Every day, millions of children spend time in Internet chat rooms talking to strangers. But what many of them don’t realize is that some of the surfers chatting with them may be sexual predators.
a. People shouldn’t buy cracked software or download music illegally from the Internet.
b. Be suspicious of wonderful offers. Don’t buy if you aren’t sure.
c. It’s dangerous to give personal information to people you contact in chat rooms.
d. Don’t open attachments from people you don’t know even if the subject looks attractive.
e. Scan your email and be careful about which websites you visit.
f. Check with your bank before sending information.
6 2. Fill in the gaps in these security tips with words from the box.
Digital certificate malware virus scanner spyware firewall antivirus
1. Malicious software, (1) , can be avoided by following some basic rules.
2. Internet users who like cybershopping should get а (2) , an electronic identity card.
3. To prevent crackers from breaking into your internal network and obtaining your data, install a (3) It will protect you from (4) virus.
4. If you have been hit by a (5) , don’t panic! Download a clean-up utility and always remember to use an (6) , for example, a virus (7) .
Ответить по 15-20 предложений на каждый вопрос.
YOU AND COMPUTERS
1) What do you do to prevent computer infections?
2) Do you keep your virus protection updated? The Internet has lots of websites where you can get free advice and software. What should you do to improve your computer security?
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