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USA



The USA is situated in the central part of the North American continent. The total area is over 9 million square kilometers. The Pacific Ocean washes its western coast and the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico in the south wash its eastern coast. It borders on Canada in the north and Mexico in the south. The USA is a federal republic of fifty states and the District of Columbia. At first it consisted of only 13 states of the Atlantic coast of America. Those were English colonies, but they fought against England and in 1776 became an independent state. They won the victory and a new nation was born. As the time went on, settlers from all the countries of Europe moved to the west. One by one new states were added to the first 13. Much land was taken from the Indians. Some of the territories were bought from France in 1803, others were taken from Mexico. Alaska was bought from Russia in 1817. It became the 49th state of the USA in 1859. The same year in 1859 the territory of Hawaii was added to the US as the 50th state.

The capital of the USA is Washington, in the District of Columbia. The USA Congress has its seat in the Capitol, and the White House is the residence of the President. New York is the largest city and port. It is the financial and business center. It is famous of its sky-serapes. Chicago is one of the biggest industrial cities in the USA. San Francisco on the pacific coast is a big port and ship building center.

The USA is one of the greatest industrial nations in the world. With only about 5 percent of the world´s population and about 6 percent of its land area, the US produces around 25 percent of the world´s industrial products, agricultural goods, and services. The USA is the world’s leader in many branches, for instance, biochemical and genetic engineering, aerospace research and development, communications, computer and information services, and similar high-technology fields. The USA is also the world´s leading agricultural nation, which not only feeds her own people but many other people in the world as well.

There are many reasons, which can explain why the USA has been able to become the leading industrial and agricultural resources. One important reason is America´s vitality, its so-called spirit of enterprise and initiative. The rapid progress of American industry and agriculture is also the result of the constant willingness to experiment and to find new solutions to old problems. The USA is divided into regions that have different kinds of land and climate, different ways of living and working, and their own characteristics and problems. And each has its own groups of people whose origin and traditions make them different from any of the others. However, out of these differences the American people were able to create a political and social system in which all of these regions and groups were represented and which formed one nation out of many parts.


ТЕКСТ № 2

British Holidays



There are a number of holidays, which are celebrated in Great Britain every year.

One of them is, of course, New Year´s Day on the first of January. It is not so popular in England as in our country, but it is rather popular in Scotland. On that day people usually visit their friends and there is a lot of dancing and eating. In Scotland people bring a piece of coal for good luck in the New Year.

The next holiday of the year is St. Valentine´s Day. It is on the 14th of February. People buy or make Valentine cards and send them to the people they love.

In March there is Mother´s Day. All the children, little or adult ones, come to their mothers on that day to express their love and gratitude.

In April there is Easter. At Easter children eat chocolate Easter eggs. Sometimes parents hide them in the ho-use or in the garden and children have to look for them.

In June there is Father´s Day. On Father´s Day children give or send their fathers and grandfathers cards and

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