Зачетная работа по английскому
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WHAT IS VOIP?
1. Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a new technology that uses broadband Internet and network lines to transmit real-time voice information. This technology has the potential for completely changing the way phone calls are made and making phone companies a thing of the past.
2. To make a phone call on the Internet, several things must happen. On the sending side, analog voice signals are digitized, compressed, divided into packets and transmitted over network lines. On the receiving end, the signals are recombined, uncompressed and converted back into audio. Because the voice signals are digital, they can be transmitted just like any other data packets on a network. VoIP can be relatively inexpensive to implement, although costs rise as the complexity of the system increases.
3. There are currently several problems with this technology. If the computer or network lines fail, then telephone service is interrupted. Though the stability of computer hardware, operating systems and network infrastructure has improved significantly in the last decade, crashes still occur. The "up" time of these systems is still significantly less than with traditional phone systems - which often continue to function even during power outages. Another issue is that tracking the origin of a call is difficult because the signals are transmitted over the Internet. This is especially important to emergency responders to 911 calls. Caller ID service may not function either.
4. Additionally, devices that make calls using phone lines, such as fax machines, cable TV boxes, etc. may not function properly. Law enforcement officials may have difficulty wiretapping phone lines that use VoIP technology. Finally, the quality of VoIP service is lower than that of a traditional phone system. Since the information is transmitted over network lines, VoIP phone calls may break up, hesitate, or cause words to be dropped. All of these issues are being addressed and their significance should be eliminated over time.
I Определите, является ли утверждение:
With VoIP technology it is easier to track the origin of a call.
A. в тексте нет информации
II Определите, является ли утверждение:
VoIP technology is a possible threat for telephone companies.
B. в тексте нет информации
III Определите, является ли утверждение:
VoIP is not a very expensive technology to implement.
B. в тексте нет информации
IV Определите, является ли утверждение:
VoIP technology is especially popular among young people.
B. в тексте нет информации
V Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует следующая информация:
The stability of a VoIP call is one of the problems this technology faces.
VI Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует следующая информация:
With VoIP technology voice signals are transmitted as data packets.
VII Ответьте на вопрос:
What are the problems with VoIP technology?
A. To use VoIP the broadband Internet and network lines are needed.
B. Voice signals are digitized to be transmitted over the Internet Protocol.
C. It is extremely expensive and less stable than traditional phone calls.
D. It is unstable and makes tracking the origin of a call very complicated.
VIII Определите основную идею текста
A. VoIP is rather inexpensive to implement.
B. Phone companies will soon disappear.
C. VoIP is a new and promising technology.
D. VoIP is not a very effective technology.
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In the 1960s, researchers began experimenting with linking computers. They wanted to see if computers in different locations could be linked using a new technology known as packet switching. This technology, in which data meant for another location is broken up into little pieces, each with it’s own “forwarding address” had the promise of letting several users share just one communications line. Their goal was not the creation of today’s international computer-using community, but the development of data network that could survive a nuclear attack.
Previous computer networking efforts had required a line between each computer on the network, sort of like a one-track train route. The packet system allowed to create data highway. Each packet was given the computer equivalent of a map and a time stamp, so that it could be sent to the right destination, where it would then be reassembled into a message the computer or a human could use. This system allowed computers to share data and researchers to exchange electronic mail, e-mail. In itself, e-mail was something of a revolution, offering the ability to send detailed letters at the speed of a phone call.
As this system grew, some college students developed a way to use it to conduct online conferences. These started as science-oriented discussions, but they soon branched out into virtually every other field, as people recognized the power of being able to” talk “to hundreds or even thousands of people around the country.
In the 1980s, this network of networks, which became known as the Internet, expanded at a phenomenal rate. Hundreds, then thousands of colleges, research companies and government agencies began to connect their computers to this worldwide Net. Some companies unwilling to pay the high costs of the Internet access learned how to link their own systems to Internet, even if “only” for e-mail and conferences. Some of these systems began offering access to the public. Now anybody with a computer and modem, persistence and a small amount of money could tap into the world.
I Mark the statements true (T), false (F), no information (0)
1. Students can reach library resources through the Internet. - 0
2. E-mailing gave people the opportunity to send letters at the speed of a phone call. - T
3. Some college students began experimenting with linking computers in the 1960s. - F
4. A packet switching technology was designed to create a computer-using community. - F
II What abstract (1, 2, 3, 4.) contains the following information.
A) Highway systems created, worldwide Net could be expanded at a phenomenal rate. - 2
В) Some systems of public access to Internet are not too expensive for their users. - 4
III What is the main advantage of the packet systems?
A) The main advantage of this system is in the fact that it doesn’t allow numerous users to share a communication line.
В) The main advantage of this systems is in the fact that it serves as a means of surviving nuclear attacks.
C) The main advantage of this system is in the fact it helped to create many-track data route.
D) The main advantage of this system is in the fact that it supports the development of new projects.
IV What is the main idea of the text?
A) E-mail service provided by the Internet nowadays
B) Online conferences as science-oriented discussions
C) The development of the Internet in the 20th century
D) “Talking” around the country
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