20 jobs in anatomy (a / p №4)

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Uploaded: 10.07.2013
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Task 1. What structures includes analyzer? In what department of the analyzer signal is detected, in which - recognition signal? In which areas of the cerebral cortex of the forebrain are located central auditory and visual analyzers? What is the absolute and differential thresholds of sensation?

Task 2. The receptor cells of the peripheral parts of the analyzers can be divided, depending on the nature of the stimulus on the mechano, chemo, photoreceptors. Describe the general mechanisms of receptor activation and describe in terms of the classification:
• taste buds;
• olfactory receptors;
• hair cells of the inner ear;
• rods and cones of the retina.

Task 3.
Fig. 1. Diagram of the anterior eye.
Give written answers:
Where are the muscles that ensure the expansion and contraction of the pupil?
Where is formed and where it goes outflow of aqueous humor?

Task 4. Define the concept of "accommodation of the eye." When viewing objects close the lens becomes more convex or flatter? To the refractive power of the eye increased, ciliary muscle must be reduced or relax?

Task 5. Point to the scheme sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of the ciliary (tsilparnoy) muscles and the muscles of the iris: gorge pupil (sphincter) and expand the pupil (dilator). Mark picks and postsynaptic membrane receptor types.
In order to cause mydriasis, such as fundus examination, it is necessary to raise or lower parasympathetic regulatory effect on the muscles of the iris?
How to change the accommodation during the blockade of parasympathetic effects on the smooth muscles of the eye? - Give written answers.

Task 6. Violations of refraction in optical media of the eye can lead to a decrease in visual acuity when looking at distant objects or close. In these cases a correction using birefringent lenses.
List refracting medium of the eye. What is the value of the refractive power of the eye?
Which of the refractive media has the highest refractive power?
Note on the chart the course of the rays in the eye with normal refraction, hyperopia and myopia.
What lens - diffuser or going - is required for the correction of myopia?
What lens is required for correction of hyperopia? -Give Written answers.

Task 7. The diagram of the cross section of the cochlear labyrinth label structure.
Specify which contains endolymph where - perilymph, what is the difference in their composition? Describe how the activation of the hair cells, which belong to the auditory analyzer? Where is the central part of the auditory analyzer in the cerebral cortex of the brain. - Give written answers.

Quest 8 What is the biological significance of conditioned reflexes? What are the rules of formation of conditioned reflexes? As vyrabatyvapyutsya secretory and motor reflexes? - Give written answers.

Task 9. Give examples of external inhibition, and four types of internal inhibition of everyday life. How is the relationship of the central parameters of excitation and inhibition is characterized by a weak type of higher nervous activity (melancholic temperament by Hippocrates).

Task 10. Analysis of the functional characteristics of structures and systems of the brain is carried out experiments on animals and human studies. Among the different approaches to the study of brain function can be identified methods of recording brain activity, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and methods of influence on the brain - electrical and chemical stimulation of the central nervous system structures. Which motor, autonomic and behavioral effects can be obtained:
> When electrical stimulation of the upper sections of the anterior central gyrus;
> When electrical stimulation of the posterior parts of the hypothalamus;
> After microinjection of angiotensin II in the lateral ventricles of the brain.
How to change the frequency and amplitude of the rhythms

Additional information

Target 11. In the cerebral cortex of the brain of man in accordance with the functional affiliation allocated different areas - sensory, motor and association. Describe functional accessory shown in Table 1 regions of the cortex.

Task 12. The scheme of the organization of functional activity of the organism targeted enter nodal stage:
What are the stages of a functional system with positive and negative emotions? What structural systems of the brain are involved in the formation of emotions? - Give written answers.

Task 13. Pain a man wearing a different CHARACTER - acute pain well a localized (epicritic) long and less than a localized (protopathic). Describe these types of pain sensitivity by filling in table 2.
What substances in the body contribute to the strengthening and weakening of the pain? - Give a written response.

Task 14. What distinguished sleep phase in accordance with the electroencephalographic characteristics of this condition? What brain structures involved in the formation of different phases of sleep? Which neurotransmitters and neuromodulators are involved in the development of sleep? - Give written answers.

Task 15. What gipotapamicheskimi factors regulate the allocation of growth hormone (GH)? What consequences will result in an excess of growth hormone in children (from 1 year to puberty) and adulthood? - Give written answers.

Task 16. What morphological and physiological changes occur in the body during puberty ontogenetic development? What the regulation of hormones is done in this period of ontogenesis? - Give written answers.

Task 17. The scheme hormone axis, providing education gametes mark hormones have a direct regulatory effect on the egg, as well as participating in the formation of positive and negative feedback.
+ Mark marked positive regulatory communication icon - marked negative regulatory communication
What are sex cells are formed in the male and female gonads?
What is the difference between germ cells from somatic? - Give written answers.

Task 18. The diagram indicate ovarian histological structure and describe their functions.
1 - primary follicles; 2 - mature follicles; 3 - vesicular (Graaf) follicle; 4 - yellow body; 5 - regressing corpus luteum.
Fig. 7. Scheme of the ovary
Where is the development of estrogen and progesterone? What is "ovulation"? What hormones provide the ovulation process? - Give written answers.

Task 19. What hormones ensure the normal course of pregnancy in a woman? Where these hormones produced? What morphological and functional changes in a woman's body and the fetus causing birth activity?

Task 20. Give the definition of "contraception". List the methods of contraception. Explain the physiological basis of immune contraception methods.


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