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Англ (Negotiations)

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Загружен: 26.01.2016
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Контрольная работа №4
Exercise 1. Read the text and answer the following questions using the text:
Negotiations
Negotiating is the process of bargaining with one or more parties for the purpose of arriving at a solution acceptable to all. Negotiations can be used as an approach to conflict management. They are also used in creating joint ventures with local firms. Negotiations conducted between countries are used in international trade.
There are several basic steps used in managing the negotiation process. This process typically begins with planning. Planning starts with identifying objectives and exploring the possible options for reaching these objectives. Research shows that the greater the number of options, the greater the chances for successful negotiations. The second phase of the negotiation process involves getting to know the people on the other side. In contrast to many other countries, Americans often give little attention to this phase; they want to get down to business immediately, which is often an ineffective approach. When American negotiators, often frustrated by endless formalities, ceremonies, and "small talk," ask how long they must wait before beginning to "do business," the answer is simple: successful negotiations have already begun. The next coming stage is exchanging information on crucial issues. At this point the participants are trying to find out what the other party wants to achieve and what it is willing to give up
In international negotiating a number of specific tactics are used. First is where should negotiations take place? If the matter is very important, most businesses will choose a neutral site. For example, U.S. firms negotiating with companies from the Far East will meet in Hawaii. South American companies negotiating with European firms will meet half way, say in New York City. A number of benefits derive from using a neutral site. One is that each party has limited access to its home office for receiving a great deal of negotiating information and advice and thus gaining advantage on the other. A second is that the cost of staying at the site is often quite high, so both sides have an incentive to conclude their negotiations as quickly as possible.
Time limits are important negotiation tactics when one of the parties is under a time limit. For example, most Americans like to be at home with their families for Thanksgiving, Christmas and the New Year holiday. Negotiations held right before these dates put the Americans at a disadvantage because the other party knows when the Americans would like to leave
Cultural differences are one of the most important factors affecting negotiations. Before beginning any negotiations, review the negotiating style of the parties. For example, Americans have a negotiation style different from that of many other countries. They often make early concessions showing the other party that they are flexible and reasonable. A comparative example will be the Arabs. In contrast to the logical approach of the Americans they tend to use an emotional appeal in their negotiation style seeking to build a long- term relationship with their bargaining partners. They treat deadlines as only general guidelines for concluding negotiations.
Knowing all the above-mentioned aspects of a negotiation process helps a lot in achieving the set goals

Answer the following questions using the text.
1. What is negotiating?
2. Where are negotiations used?
3. What are the basic steps of a negotiation process?
4. What does planning start with?
5. What frustrates American negotiators at the second phase of a negotiation process?
6. What is the aim of exchanging information on crucial issues?
7. What are the main negotiation tactics?
8. Why will most companies choose a neutral site for discussing matters of great significance?
9. Why are time limits important for the Americans?
10. What are the differences in the negotiating styles of the Americans and the Arabs?

Дополнительная информация

Exercise 2. Read the following statements and say whether they are true or false.
1. Negotiating is bargaining with one or more parties used in home and foreign trade.
2. The success of negotiations depends on the number of options for reaching its objectives.
3. American negotiators find getting to know the people on the other side an effective phase in negotiations.
4. At the phase of exchanging information on crucial issues negotiators identify the objectives and seek the ways of solving them.
5. A neutral site is seldom chosen by businesses for negotiating.
6. The choice of the time for conducting negotiations is strong negotiation tactics. 
7. American negotiators often make early concessions to show that they want to build long-term relations.

Exercise 3. Choose the right form of the verb (Gerund or Infinitive)
1. The process of bargain / bargaining should be well prepared.
2. We should explore / exploring all the possible incentives.
3. I am interested in concluding/ conclude this deal with Procter & Gamble LTD.
4. Achieving / To achieve your sales target you must work very hard.
5. It is impossible for us to offer/ offering you such a concession.
6. This approach is used in training / train of the new staff of a large company.
7. While to conduct / conducting the talks they put forward some attractive terms for us.
8. She was frustrated by spend /spending all day in the office and doing secretarial jobs.
9. Thank you for mentioning/to mention this important fact during the negotiations.

Exercise 4. Choose the right form of Participle (I or II).
1. We are interested/ interesting in the new target customers.
2. This experience was frustrated/frustrating to me.
3. The factors affecting/affected negotiations are numerous.
4. We were shocked/shocking to hear that news.
5. I find this work very tiring/tiresome.
6. His explanations are confused/confusing.
7. We are used / using this method for team building at the moment.
8. There are fifteen people managed /managing by Peter Connors, Head of the Marketing Department.
9. Sheila was exciting/excited about her new job.
10. His exam results were disappointing/disappointed.

Exercise 5. Translate the sentences into Russian.
I. She heard the door close.
2. I don´t want anything to come up between us.
3. She made him drink orange juice.
4. He let her read undisturbed for an hour.
5. When do you expect your guests to come?
6. I won´t let him marry my daughter.
7. He watched the people hurrying towards the trains.
8. I´d like the work to be done immediately.
9. Mary heard him singing a popular tune.
10. We expect the contract to be signed tomorrow.
11. What made you cry?
12. I saw them playing cards.
13. His parents didn´t want him to become a lawyer.
14. I heard the phone ring.
15. Don´t let him spend so much money.

Exercise 6. Put the verbs into the right form.
I. Listen! Can you hear a child (cry)?
2. I saw the accident (happen).
3. I felt somebody (stand) at the door.
4. He saw Mary (wait) for the train at the station.
5. We watched the man (cross) the street, (get) into the car and (drive away).
6. I saw John (sit) in the garden.
7. We expect him (come) by an early train.
8. He wants the work (do) by his secretary.
9. Her mother made her (apologize).
10. We´d like the sellers (deliver) the goods.
11. She let him (use) her dictionary.
12. I want Mary (understand) it.
13. Drink this milk, don´t let it (get) cold.
14. She was made (help) her brother.
15. Everybody wants her (feel) better.
16. My father let me (drive) his car yesterday.

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