I. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям (см. образец выполнения 1).
1. In chloroplasts, light energy causes water drawn from the soil to split into molecules of hydrogen and oxygen.
2. Gene is thought to control a single characteristic of an organism.
3. Genes are known to determine the characteristics living things inherit from their parents.
II. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов (см. образец выполнения 2).
1. The atmosphere being polluted with about 1,000 tons of dust, the Earth’s gaseous envelope is becoming less transparent.
2. The student knowing English well, the exam didn’t last long.
III. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод условных предложений (см. образец выполнения 3).
1. If a third of the land and a third of the oceans remains untouched by civilization, the natural balance will be preserved.
2. It would be impossible to explain chemical phenomena without using the laws of physics.
3. If you had followed all the instructions, you would have achieved the desired result.
IV. Прочтите и письменно переведите текст.
1. Gene therapy is а technique for treating diseases by providing the cells of а patient’s body with а normal gene (unit of heredity) to make up for а defective or missing gene. The technique allows doctors either to correct а defect in the function of а patient’s cells or to instruct the cells to carry out а new function. Gene therapy is in the early stages of development and is not а common treatment. However, it offers hope of treating diseases that today are incurable, such as sickle cell anemia, AIDS, some forms of cancer, and cardiovascular disease.
2. Gene therapy involves three main steps: (1) removing cells from the patient’s body, (2) inserting а corrective gene from another individual or organism into the patients cells, and (3) returning the altered cells to the body through а blood transfusion. Once in the body, the new gene automatically begins treating the disease. Doctors may repeat the technique until the body maintains its own supply of the new gene through normal cell growth.
3. Doctors first used gene therapy as а treatment in 1990. The case involved а 4-year-old girl whose deficiency of the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) caused her immune system to become defective, resulting in а repetition of life-threatening infections. Scientists at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda inserted а normal ADA gene into immune cells taken from the girl’s body. They returned the treated cells to her body through а transfusion. The inserted gene instructed the cells to produce normal amounts of the missing enzyme. As а result, her defective immune system began to recover. Gene therapy has also been used to treat а deadly skin cancer called melanoma.
4. The use of gene therapy is controversial. Some people are concerned that it may permanently alter the basic substance of human beings if genes from other species are used. To help monitor its use, in some countries special groups are established that have the right to approve or prohibit the use of gene therapy.
V. Ответьте на вопрос:
Why do some people object to gene therapy?