Answers to exam questions of TSU 2012

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Your question on discipline "Finance and Credit"

1. Finance as an economic category.

Background of financial relations. The essential features of financial relations. The finance function as an expression of their essence. The role of finance in the economic relations of the market economy. Basic usage of finance in social reproduction. Controversial questions of essence and functions of finance. Modern ideas about the content of finance as an economic category (in the work of VM Rodionova, MK Shermeneva VK Senchagova, AY Cossacks Mikhail Romanovsky, AZ Dadashov, DG . Blueberries, GB Polyak, LA Drobozinoy et al.). The relationship of finance and other economic categories.

2. The financial policy of the state and the factors determining it.

The definition of financial policy. Factors affecting fiscal policy. Financial measures of economy (tax, budget subsidies, public enterprise, public consumption). Financial mechanism as an instrument of monetary policy. Features of financial policy at the present stage. Financial Management. Financial planning and forecasting. Financial control.

3. The financial system at the present stage. The concept of financial and credit mechanism.

Determination of the financial system as a collection of different

units of financial relations. Different views of economists to determine the financial system, its components (MK Shermenev, EA Voznesensky, VM Rodionova). The concept of financial and credit mechanism in the writings of economists (VK Senchagov, Nicholas PS). The financial and credit levers and incentives.

4. A modern budget system, the characteristic of its links.

Components of the budgetary system of the state. The composition and the links of the budget system and a federal unitary state. Principles of construction of budgetary system. The role and place in the extra-budgetary funds in the budget system.

The budget process and its stages. Budget of legislative and executive power in the budget process.

5. Fiscal Federalism at the heart of the organization

inter-budgetary relations.

The concept of federalism and fiscal federalism in general in particular. The principles of fiscal federalism. Improvement of intergovernmental relations. World practice of differentiation of income and expenditure budgets of different levels.

6. Balance the budget and its regulation.

Types of budget balance: the equality of income and expenses, surplus and deficit. State regulation of the ratio of budget revenues and expenditures.

The concept of budget deficits. Sources of financing budget deficits at all levels. Causes and effects of the budget deficit. Active and passive fiscal deficit. Inflationary and non-inflationary ways to cover the budget deficit.

The concept of budget surpluses. Theory and practice of modern regulatory budget surplus.

7. The budget process and its stages.

General characteristics of the budget process, its stages and duration. The drafting of the budget and the role of the executive branch. Methods for calculating the estimated revenue and expenditure.

Review and approval of the draft budget by the legislative authorities. Budget initiative. The role of head of state in this process.

Execution of the budget. The role and place of the legislative and executive authorities at this stage of the budget process. Cash execution of the budget. Reporting on the budget and its approval.

The legal framework of the budget process.

8. Profit as a result of the financial activity of the enterprise: aspects of the formation and distribution.

Determination of profit, its economic nature. The role of profit as an evaluation index of the enterprise at different stages of economic development. Characterization methods of profit distribution, their development.

9. The financial aspect of the creation and use of working capital.

The definition of working capital. The composition

Additional information

Your question on discipline specialization "Banking"

1. Formation of the own resources of a commercial bank.

The concept of banking resources, grouping them according to the process of education. Structure and specificity of formation of resources of Russian commercial banks.

The essence and significance of own resources of a commercial bank. The composition and structure of the bank´s own funds. Functions of the Bank´s equity: protection, control and regulation.

Features of formation of the authorized capital of the bank. The minimum size of the authorized capital for newly established commercial banks. Contributions to the charter capital of the bank. The maximum amount of non-cash portion of the authorized capital of the bank.

The appointment of the reserve fund of the commercial bank. The minimum size of the reserve fund. The procedure of formation and use of reserve fund. The additional capital as a structural component of the bank´s own funds. Use as own resources of retained earnings.

The minimum size of the bank´s own funds. Determination of own funds by each commercial bank independently. Factors that affect the value of bank´s own funds. Methods for increasing the bank´s own capital.

Determination of the bank´s own funds in accordance with the methodology of the Bank of Russia. Primary and secondary capital of commercial banks.


2. Formation of deposits attracted resources of a commercial bank.

The concept of banking resources, grouping them according to the process of education. Structure and specificity of formation of resources of Russian commercial banks.

The essence and purpose of a commercial bank borrowed resources. The group raised funds by the process of accumulation. The notion of deposits. Classification of bank deposits by category of investors, in the form of exemptions on the economic content. Essence, especially demand deposits, time deposits and savings deposits, their advantages and disadvantages for the commercial bank and its customers.

Deposit and savings certificates as evidence of the bank´s contribution to physical or legal entity funds.


3. Inter-bank loans as a source of formation of resources of a commercial bank.

Interbank loans as a source of non-deposit resources attracted commercial bank. The essence of interbank loans, their main function. The methods, terms and procedure of interbank loans. Interest rates on interbank loans. Factors that influence the level of interest rates on interbank loans. The system of indicators of the interbank market rates and their formation.


4. Analysis of income and expenses of a commercial bank.

The purpose of the analysis of income and expenses of a commercial bank. Methods of analysis: structural analysis; analysis of the dynamics of income and expenses;

calculation of financial ratios. Grouping income commercial bank in terms of stability. Interest and non-interest income of the commercial bank. Financial ratios used to assess the level of income. Factors increasing the revenues of the commercial bank.

Grouping the costs of a commercial bank. Interest and non-interest expenses. Factors that influence the level of expenditure of the commercial bank. Measures that reduce costs.


5. The concept and criteria of creditworthiness of the commercial bank.

Defining creditworthiness of the commercial bank. Creditworthiness criteria used in the Russian and foreign banking practice. Character client. Capacity of the borrower. Capital borrower. Secured loans. The conditions under which the credit transaction. Control over the activities of the borrower and the bank´s compliance with its standards.


6. Modern methods of assessing creditworthiness of the commercial bank.

Credit rating of the borrower as a way to reduce the credit risk of commercial bank. Methods for assessing the creditworthiness of the borrower of the bank used by the banking community.

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