Answers to gosy economy in the 2015-2016 WGA section 3

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Section I. microeconomics. Macroeconomics1. Microeconomics in the system of economic knowledge. The evolution of the main directions of economic theory. Options microeconomics.2. Demand factors: concept, function, and the law of demand. Changing the size of demand, the demand curve and the price of demand.3. Market supply and the law of supply. Factors proposal. The supply curve. The offer price.4. Market equilibrium: the mechanism for setting the properties, the effects of the establishment of equilibrium prices.5. The labor market and wages.6. Capital markets and interest rates.7. The land market and land rent.8. Industry and market structure of the market. Types of market structures.9. Competitive market and perfect competition.10. The economic costs of production, their structure and types.11. The essence of the market, its function and role in social production.12. The market of perfect competition: special conditions of activity of the company, the offer of the company in the short and long term.13. Perfect competition and efficiency.14. The market structure of imperfect competition.15. The economic nature of monopoly and their types. The economic consequences of monopoly regulation of monopolies. Price discrimination.16. Monopolistic competition.17. Characteristics of oligopolistic market, the cartel model, the model of price leadership, Cournot duopoly model of conscious rivalry.18. The theory of social welfare.19. The company and its role in a market economy. Formation of the company´s profits, its sources and functions.20. Production capacities, production possibilities curve, Pareto efficiency.21. Elasticity of demand and supply elasticity.22. The cardinal and ordinal concept of consumer choice. Individual and market demand.23. Macro-economic structure of the national economy. The system of macroeconomic interrelations major sectors of the economy.24. The social product: the essence, performance measurement.25. The measurement of economic performance: the system of national accounting, methodology of calculation of basic macroeconomic indicators.26. Macroeconomic instability: the concept of the economic cycle and its phases. The reasons for cyclical fluctuations in the market economy. The economic cycle and the dynamics of key macroeconomic indicators.27. Unemployment as a form of macroeconomic instability: the concept of unemployment, causes of unemployment, forms of unemployment and its natural rate.28. Inflation: the nature, causes and measurement of inflation. Socio-economic effects of inflation. The relationship between inflation and unemployment. Stagflation.29. Macroeconomic balance in the commodity market. The balance of aggregate demand and aggregate supply and full employment of resources.30. The content and functions of finance and the financial system. Formation of the structure of the budget. Budget potential.31. The tax system and the principles of its construction. Functions of the tax system.32. Financial market. Stock market. The main types of securities. The securities in the global financial markets.33. Fiscal policy of the state. Built-in stabilizers of the economy.34. Money and its functions. Money supply. The main monetary aggregates.35. The objectives and instruments of monetary policy. The impact of monetary policy on economic growth.36. State regulation of national economy. Methods of state economic regulation. The main directions of state regulation of the economy post-reform Russia.37. General characteristics of economic growth. Economic growth and changes in the structure of the economy and public institutions. Factors and types of growth.38. State social policy: incomes, income distribution and manufacturing. State income redistribution.39. Features of the world economy as a matter of economic theory. The objective basis for the formation and development of the world economy.40. The theory of international trade.41. Foreign trade policy. Macroeconomic value and structure of the main item

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Section III. MANAGEMENT. LABOR ECONOMICS. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS1. Theoretical basis of management: laws and principles.2. Organizational bases of management: management functions, their role and place in the methodology, theory and practice of management.3. Functional subsystem management. The relationship of general and specific management functions.4. Changes in the composition and content of the functions under the influence of scientific, technical, environmental, social, organizational and other factors internal and external environment.5. The organization as a control object. Characteristics of the organization as a system: properties, basics of building and development.6. Organizational design, the formation of organizational processes.7. The objectives of management. The organization´s mission, goals and means of management.8. Organizational structure of management. System response factors influencing the management structure of economic organizations.9. Development of the management structures of business organizations. The principles of developing and improving governance structures. The criteria of rationality.10. Classification of methods of management. General scientific management methods and their use in research and practice management.11. The economic impact of management methods, their features and peculiarities.12. Organizational culture: functions, features and elements. The formation, maintenance and change of organizational culture.13. Methods of managing organizational change. The main stages of the update process of the organization. Objects change. Methods for overcoming resistance.14. The management process: definition, nature, content, characteristics.15. The structure of the management cycle. Process control scheme, the steps and stages.16. The concept, essence and content management solutions. Requirements for management decisions.22. The labor potential of a society and its structure. The concept of boundaries, the composition and sources of revenue for the country´s workforce.23. Requirements for the quality of the labor force in the market economy, and technical and technological innovations and information. Indicators of labor productivity.24. The nature and function of wages. Wages and labor costs and their relationship.25. Formation of funds to pay workers.26. The tariff system of remuneration, its purpose and components.27. The forms and systems of remuneration of employees, their purpose and conditions of use.28. Types and structure of employment.29. The labor market: the concept, status and trends, the main components of the infrastructure.30. Terms of the effective functioning of the labor market in Russia.31. Unemployment in Russia. The state employment policy, its purpose, the most important trends and methods.32. Models of the labor market and the regulation of employment in the industrialized countries.33. The labor movement and labor mobility in the conditions of market relations: concept, types and trends. Managing labor mobility.34. Collective agreements and treaties. Levels of implementation of social partnership.35. The essence of labor conflicts, their types and functions. Methods output (permission) from the conflict.36. Subject, goals, objectives and principles of economic analysis.37. The place of economic analysis in the system of economic sciences. Objects analysis.38. The system of major economic indicators and their links used in the analysis.39. Types of economic analysis on the different bases of classification.40. The statistical, mathematical, economic and mathematical and other methods of economic information.41. Analysis of the composition and the economic efficiency of use of tangible and intangible assets of business, its workforce.42. An analysis of production, sales and cost of products and services a commercial enterprise.43. Analysis of profit, production profitability, financial performance and financial condition of the commercial enterprise.44. Economic analysi


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