Candidate minimum on the philosophy of science (2010)

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It contains archive of abstract answer questions candidate minimum of philosophy of science: 50 responses from the "History and Philosophy of Science", and 20 responses from the "Philosophical problems of socio-humanitarian sciences."
Thus, there are answers to the following:
QUESTIONS candidate examinations in the course "History and Philosophy of Science"
1. The concept of science. Science as cognitive activity, as a social institution, as a specific cultural sphere.
2. Philosophy and science, their specificity, the relationship and role in society.
3. The philosophy of science, its main subject and problem.
4. Transcendental Analysis (Kant) and synthetic synthesis (Comte) approach to understanding science.
5. Expansion of the field of philosophical problems in postpositivist filo¬sofii science (Popper, I. Lakatos, Kuhn, P.Feyerabend).
6. Science in the culture of modern civilization. The essence of the scientific ra¬tsionalnosti.
7. traditionalist and technogenic types of civilization, their basic tsen¬nosti and place them in the structure of science.
8. Features of scientific knowledge. Science and everyday knowledge. Science and art. Science and Philosophy. The functions of science in society.
9. prednauki and science in the proper sense of the word. Generalization prak¬ticheskogo experience and construction of theoretical models of the structure of obtaining scientific knowledge.
10.Nauka and philosophy of antiquity. The formation of the scientific and philosophical methodology. 11.Filosofiya and science of the Middle Ages: faith and knowledge, reason and revelation; the problem of "enlightenment" and its rational sense.
12.Filosofiya and science of the Middle Ages: the first universities, especially the scholastic method of teaching. Alchemy, astrology, magic and science.
13.Stanovlenie experimental science in modern European culture. Occurrence experimental method and its connection with
14.Formirovanie mechanical picture of the world, its ideological znache¬nie. The classic type of science.
15.Formirovanie science as a career. The emergence of disciplinary organized by science and its technological applications.
16.Nauka and philosophy of the Enlightenment. The cult of reason, his strong hand and sla¬bye.
17.I.Kant: scientific knowledge as a creative, constructive activity of the subject. Positive sense a priori and
18.G.Gegel: the development of the dialectical method. Dialectical thinking in the structure of scientific activity.
19.K.Marks: the ratio of objective and subjective dialectics and scientific activities j. The negative consequences for the science transformation of Marxism into an official ideology.
20.Russky Space Art: Concept NF Fedorov, Tsiolkovsky Vernadsky and in the light of modern science. The concepts of "biosphere", "teh¬nosfera" and "noosphere".
21.Neklassicheskaya philosophy: rationalism and irrationalism and for¬mirovanie nonclassical type of science.
22.Neopozitivizm and postpositivism as a "philosophy of science": Principles ve¬rifikatsii and falsification of knowledge, analysis of the language of science, the unity logi¬ki, mathematics and linguistics.
23.Postmodernizm: the rejection of universalism and for the totality of the "otherness" and the problem of simulacra. The concept postnonclassical science.
24.Nauchnoe knowledge as a complex evolving system. Empirical and theoretical levels of science, the criteria for discernment.
25.Struktura empirical knowledge. Experiment and observation. Pri¬borov role in systematic observation. Empirical dependence and em¬piricheskie facts. The problem of theoretical loading of fact in science.
26.Struktura theoretical knowledge. Theoretical models and the laws of science. The theory developed. The role of constructive methods in the deployment of scientific theories.

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