Control English №3

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Uploaded: 30.07.2014
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TEXT 3. The greatest developments of mankind
1.Read the text
(Read the text)
Methods for keeping approximate track of time date from antiquity. Sundials, for example, were used by the ancient Egyptians. In the cloudier climates of Europe, however, sundials proved inadequate. The achievement of artificial timekeeping has reverberated throughout civilization. It became an important part of navigation, as marines relied on accurate time measurement to calculate longitude. It was a boon to science, as scientific observations often require accurate measurements of time. Today, an increasingly industrialized world is highly structured by time: timekeeping governs when we work, play, eat and sleep.
Until the 15th century few people knew how to read and write. For thousands of years the dissemination of knowledge was limited to word of mouth and extremely costly manuscripts. It was the invention of movable type that proved the major breakthrough. Around 1440, a German goldsmith Johannes Gutenberg combined several key printing technologies and invented the first printing press. The most important was a method of creating uniformly shaped pieces of metal, each with different letter of the alphabet on its face that could be endlessly rearranged to form new Bible.
Early-17th-century Holland was a hotbed of optics development. Here the microscope was invented, although a sole credit to this achievement is difficult to determine. It was also during the 1600s that Dutch naturalist Antoni van Leeuwenhoek built his own microscope and discovered what he called animalcules, which are now known as bacteria and protozoa. Much of our knowledge of disease and how to fight it, including the concept of immunization, has flowed from the use of the microscope.
It is tempting to think of a car or the airplane as among the most important inventions of the millennium. But these were merely evolutionary refinement of the first machine to convert burning fuel into mechanical energy on a large scale. This invention liberated people from the limitations of their own muscles and those of beasts of burden. It made possible the factories that drove the Industrial revolution. And it was at the heart of the first form of high-speed mechanized transportation: the locomotive.The innovation that made electricity available in large quantities for human use was the dynamo, a machine that converted mechanical motion into electric power. The dynamo is based on a discovery made by the British scientist Michael Faraday in 1831. He found that moving a coil of wire through a magnetic field produces an electric current in the wire. This allowed a straightforward conversion of steam, used to spin a rotor, into electricity. Once created, the electricity needed only a system of cables and transformers to carry it to the houses, factories, and office buildings that used it to power light bulbs and other electric appliances.
The principle of the telegraph is simple: pulses of electrical current are sent through a wire by manually taping on a key to operate a simple switch. At the receiving end, the pulses create a magnetic field that causes a needle to punch holes on a strip of paper or that creates an audible click as a contact closes. When relayed in a coded fashion, these pulses can transmit a message, potentially over great distances.
For most of human history, infectious diseases have killed people with brutal regularity. As recently as World War I more battlefield deaths came from infection than from the direct trauma or gunshot. Physicians had very few weapons to combat cholera, pneumonia, meningitis, scarlet fever, tuberculosis, or any of dozens of other diseases. In 1928, Scottish researcher Alexander Fleming noticed that the presence of a certain mould in Petri dishes stopped the growth of bacteria. He identified the mould as coming from the penicillium family and called it penicillin. The development of penicillin and the huge range of similar dru

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3. Copy from the text the sentences with the words and word combinations from essential vocabulary and translate them into Russian. (Locate and write down the text of the proposal with the words and expressions from a previous job and translate them into Russian)
4. Choose the answers to the following questions
(Select the following questions):
1. What is sundial?
a. the use of conventional typesetting machines;
b. the special tool for timekeeping;
c. the quality;
d. the completeness and correct location.
2. What was invented by Johannes Gutenberg?
a. the designed blocks of text;
b. press proofing process;
c. the way the films are used;
d. a method of printing.
3. What country was a hotbed of optic development?
a. Germany;
b. Holland;
c. Hungary;
d. Denmark.
4. Is the dynamo based on a discovery made by the British scientist Michael Faraday?
a. Yes, it is;
b. No, it is not;
c. I do not know;
d. I am not sure.
5. What was called the penicillin?
a. a bacteria;
b. an infection;
c. a mould;
d. a disease.
5. Match the two halves of the phrases:
(Connect the two halves of expression)
1 magnetic a type
2 electric b bulb
3 movable c flight
4 method of d phone
5 light e robot
6 Petri f current
7 battlefield g field
8 space h printing
9 mobile i dish
10 programmable j death
6. Translate the resulting expressions into Russian.
(Put the resulting expressions into Russian writing)
7. Find the statement true or false
(Specify true or false statement):
1. Sundials were used by the ancient Greek.
2. Today, an increasingly industrialized world is highly structured by time.
3. It was the invention of movable type that proved the major breakthrough of knowledge.
4. The invention of the first machine to convert burning fuel into mechanical energy did not liberate people from the limitations of their own muscles and those of beasts of burden.
5. The innovation that made electricity available in large quantities for human use was the dynamo.
6. Pulses of electrical current are sent through the air by manually taping on a key to operate a simple switch.
7. During the World War I physicians had very many weapons to combat cholera, pneumonia, meningitis, scarlet fever, gonorrhea, tuberculosis, or any of dozens of other diseases.
8. The space flights caused a sensation in the science by using special conditions of the weightlessness and industrial production of various materials that can start in space.
8. Complete the sentences with correct endings
(Select the correct ending of sentences):
1. The achievement of artificial timekeeping has reverberated throughout:
a) cultivation;
b) civilization;
c) curriculum.
2. For thousands of years the dissemination of knowledge was limited to:
a) text input;
b) magnetic field procedures;
c) word of mouth and extremely costly manuscripts.
3. Michael Faraday found that moving a coil of wire through a magnetic field produces:
a) magnetic field.
b) electric current;
c) weightlessness.
4. Alexander Fleming noticed identified mould as coming from:
a) the penicillium family;
b) the antibacterial family;
c) the infection family.
5. It is possible to implant different microchips directly:
a) in the muscle;
b) in the nerve;
c) in the brain.
9. Word building (Derivation).
With some words it is possible to create several new words by adding suffixes. Look at the examples and complete the table below, using a dictionary. Give the translation.
(Fill in where possible omissions in the table and allow the translation of words received. Use a dictionary.)
Verb Noun (idea) Noun (person) Adjective -ing form
activate activism
activity
activation activist active activating
to develop development developed
developmental
to use used
to create creating
creativity creator
creature
t

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