# English version 4 (TORSION)

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# Description

Вариант 4
TORSION
1) Torsion occurs in the monolithic concrete construction primarily where the load acts at a distance from the longitudinal axis of the structural member. A spandrel beam, a canopy, peripheral beams or a helical staircase are all examples of structural elements subjected to twisting moments. These moments occasionally cause excessive shearing stresses. Most concrete beams subjected to twist are components of rectangles. They are usually flanged sections such as T beams and L beams.
2) The torsional moment acting on a particular structural component such as a spandrel beam can be calculated using normal structural analysis procedures. Design of the particular component needs to be based on the limit state of failure. Therefore, the nonlinear behavior of a structural system after torsional cracking must be identified in one of the following two conditions: I) no redistribution of torsional stress to other members after cracking and 2) redistribution of torsional stress and moments after cracking to effect deformation compatibility between intersecting members.
3) Stress resultants in statically determinate beams can be evaluated from equilibrium conditions alone. Such conditions require a design for the full-factored external torsional moment, because no redistribution of torsional stress is possible. This state is often termed equilibrium torsion.
4) The edge beam has to be designed to resist the total external factored twisting moment due to the cantilever slab; otherwise, the structure will collapse. Failure would be caused by the beam not satisfying conditions of equilibrium of forces and moments resulting from the large external torque.
5) In statically indeterminate systems, stiffness assumptions, compatibility of strains at the joints, and redistributions of stresses may affect the stress resultants, leading to a reduction in the resulting torsional shearing stress.
6) Neglect of the full effect of the total external torsional moment in this case does not lead to failure of the structure but may result in excessive cracking.

Задание 1. Прочитайте текст и письменно переведите абзацы 2, 3, 6.
Задание 2. Письменно ответьте на вопросы к тексту "Torsion":
1 What elements are subjected to twisting moments?
2 Where does torsion occur?
3 How can the torsional moment be calculated?
4 When can failure happen?
5 What may redistributions of stresses result in?
Задание 3. Найдите и выпишите из текста "Torsion" английские эквиваленты следующих выражений.
деформация кручения
рандбалка
пренебрежение
подвергаться
перераспределение напряжения кручения
состояние равновесия
нести нагрузку
соединение –
главный вектор напряжений
чрезмерная трещина

Задание 4. Соотнесите английские и русские слова и словосочетания:
edge beam
failure
longitudinal axis
equilibrium of forces
cantilever slab
torsional shearing stress
Задание 5. Определите видовременные формы глагола. Переведите предложения на русский язык:
1 Thus the designer of the Kinemax has managed to make the illusion last long after the visitors have left the building.
2 Iron beams became structurally important elements only in the late 18th century with the widespread introduction of cast iron.
3 Loading for slabs is normally specified in pounds per square foot.
4 The talented architects are
creating revolutionary structures.
5 An abandoned furniture store was transformed into a sparkling school in an imaginative space.
6 Several methods of analysis of statically indeterminate structures have been developed over the years.
7 The classical methods are based primarily on a physical understanding of the structural deformational behavior.
8 Reinforced concrete is weak in tension but strong in compression.
Задание 6. Перепишите, подчеркните в предложениях модальные глаголы и переведите предложения на русский язык:
1 Every building must be beautiful in appearance and proportional in various parts.
2 The materials used for the walls construction can be brick, stone, concrete and other natural and artificial materials.
3 The walls may be solid or hollow.
4 Man had to protect himself against the elements and to sustain himself in the conflict with nature.
5 The overall thickness should not be less than 8 inches.

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