I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. В разделе (б) обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.
а) 1. Astronomers have measured the exact length of the day.
2. Astronomers find that the day is increasing by 0.002 seconds each century.
б). 1. The chemical properties of an element are determined by the orbiting electrons.
2. As a rule one great discovery is generally followed by numerous others.
II. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The cloud chamber (камера Вильсона) is one of the devices used to detect the presence of radioactivity.
2. Matter consists of one or a number of basic elements occurring in nature.
3. One can use several modern devices while detecting and measuring radioactivity.
4. When heated to a certain temperature, this alloy increases in volume.
III. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент; предложения переведите.
1. We can think of heat as a special form of kinetic energy.
2. A computer should solve complicated problems many millions of times faster than a mathematician.
3. New types of plastics had to be obtained for space technology.
4. To measure the vast distances between different planets scientists have to use special instruments.
IV. Прочтите и устно переведите весь текст, а письменно переведите 2-й и 3-й абзацы.
1. Powell was a prominent English scientist noted for his techniques and discoveries in particle physics.2 He was also deeply concerned with problems relating to the social responsibility of scientists. Powell was a leader in the World Federation of Scientific Workers in the mid-1950s and was a founder of the Pugwush Conferences3 on Science and World Affairs in 1957. As a public man and in his published articles Powell stressed the perils of destructive weapons and the need for international cooperation.
2. Powell was born in December 1903 in England. His parents were poor and they were determined4 to give their children a good education to increase their opportunities for a better life. In 1921 Powell won a scholarship5 of one of the colleges at Cambridge which he graduated in 1925 with first-class honours in science. He started his scientific career at the Cavendish laboratory headed by Ernest Rutherford. After gaining his scientific degree at Cambridge in 1928 Powell accepted a position6 at the new Physics laboratory in the University of Bristol. Powell spent the rest of his career there advancing to professor in 1948 and director of the laboratory in 1964.
3. In 1947 Powell´s Bristol group identified a new particle in the cosmic radiation. Powell and other two scientists discovered their meson and demonstrated that this sub-nuclear particle7 was produced directly in nuclear reactions and rapidly decayed in flight, producing the u-meson. The discovery solved a complicated scientific problem and helped open a new era of particle physics.
4. Powell continued to develop and apply the photographic method of Bristol. His laboratory became the source of new experimental discoveries in meson physics and an international training centre for physicists of many countries. In 1950 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for his development of the photographic method and his meson discoveries.