Контрольная по английскому №1. Вариант 2.

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1. Read and write down the following sentences. Emphasize them infinitive and determine its form and function. Turn suggestions on the Russian language.

1. The teacher allowed us to use reference material while writing the report.
2. We were sorry to find out that most of the museums we wanted to see that day were closed.
3. One of the students had to miss quite a number of lessons.
4. To go on with this discussion is to waste time.

2. Read and write down the following sentences. Emphasize them Communion I and II, the determine their shape and function. Turn suggestions on the Russian language.
1. Being late for the talks, they left before the party was over.
2. Not knowing the grammar rules, he made many mistakes.
3. I read several books translated into Russian by this author.

3. Read and write down the following sentences. Emphasize them gerund, determine its form and function. Turn suggestions on the Russian language.

1. She enjoyed being admired
2. I remember meeting him in Paris.
3. The child was afraid of being punished.
4. Everything depends on the contract being cancelled in time.

IV. Read and write down the following sentences. Put these proposals, paying attention to the words and substitute that one.

1. This computer is more powerful than the one we need.

5. Read and put the following text in writing.

The capital of the USA is Washington. It is situated in the District of Columbia on the banks of the Potomac river and is named after the 1st US President -George Washington. There are many large cities in the country: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, San-Francisco, Cleveland and some others.
The United States of America is a federal state, headed by the President. According to the US Constitution the powers of the Government are divided into three branches: legislative, executive and judicial. The legislative power belongs to the Congress consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate represents the states while the House of Representatives - the population. The executive power belongs to the President and his Administration (Vice-President and Cabinet of Ministers). The judicial power belongs to the Supreme Court and the system of Federal, state and district courts.
There are several political parties in the USA, the largest of them are the Republican (symbolized by a donkey) and the Democratic (symbolized by an elephant).
The USA is a highly developed industrial country. The transport network spreads into all sections of the country, but the web of railways and highways is much denser in the eastern half of the United States. In the early 1990s the United States had about 6.24 million km of streets, roads, and highways. The National Interstate Highway System, 68,449 km in length in the early 1990s, connected the nation's principal cities and carried about one-fifth of all the road and street traffic.
More than 188 million motor vehicles were registered in the early 1990s. More than three-quarters were cars - one for every two persons in the country. About one-fifth of the vehicles were Lorries. Amtrak (the National Railroad Passenger Corporation), a federally subsidized concern, operates almost all the intercity passenger trains in the United States; it carried more than 22 million passengers annually in the early 1990s.

Additional information

6. Rewrite the following sentences containing independent participial.
Analyze and determine the type of the subordinate clause. Put in writing the proposals in the Russian language.
1. A bank is a business, its owners and managers aiming to maximize profits.
2. The novel having been read, Jane put it aside.
3. The ship's band did not play in the morning, it being Sunday.
4. I will not speak with him staring at me like that.
5.The duster refolded and restored, he threw his legs across the saddle.

7. Rewrite the following sentences containing predictive gerundive turnover. Put in writing the proposals in the Russian language.

1. Nobody objected to his being given the position of assistant.
2. Who is interested in his changing his convictions?
3. She was interested in Sir Robert refusing to make his report in Parliament.
4. I could not rely on his setting the matter in the right way.
5. I do not mind his helping you.

8. Rewrite the following sentences containing infinitive turnover. Determine the type of infinitive turnover. Put in writing the proposals in the Russian language.

1. It was difficult for him to do anything else.
2. The wall was too high for anything to be visible.
3. I know him to be an honest man.
4. The new business was believed to improve the situation in the market.
5. She hated her son to be separated from her.

9. Rewrite the following conditional sentences. Determine the type of conditional offers, move the proposals written in Russian.
1. If we had booked tickets beforehand, we would not stand in a queue now to get them.
2. He would certainly have translated this article yesterday.
3. If John were not so selfish, he would not have gone to the seaside alone last year.
4. If studied thoroughly, market forces can help to increase profits.
5. But for my smile, he would have believed me.

V. writing Read and translate the following text.


The concept of robots dates back to ancient times, when some myths told of mechanical beings brought to life. Such automata also appeared in the clockwork figures of medieval churches, and in the 18th century some clockmakers gained fame for the clever mechanical figures that they constructed. Today the term automaton is usually applied to these handcrafted, mechanical (rather than electromechanical) devices that imitate the motions of living creatures. Some of the «robots» used in advertising and entertainment are actually automata, even with the addition of remote radio control.
The term robot itself is derived from the Czech word robota, meaning «compulsory labour». It was first used by the Czech novelist and playwright Karel Chapek, to describe a mechanical device that looks like a human but, lacking human sensibility, can perform only automatic, mechanical operations. Robots as they are known today do not only imitate human or other living forms. True robots did not become possible, however, until the invention of the computer in the 1940s and the miniaturization of computer parts. One of the first true robots was an experimental model designed by researchers at the Stanford Research Institute in the late 1960s. It was capable of arranging blocks into stacks through the use of a television camera as a visual sensor, processing this information in a small computer.
Computers today are equipped with microprocessors that can handle the data being fed to them by various sensors of the surrounding environment. Making use of the principle of feedback, robots can change their operations to some degree in response to changes in that environment. The commercial use of robots is spreading, with the increasing automation of factories, and they have become essential to many laboratory procedures. Japan is the most advanced nation exploring robot technology. Nowadays robots continue to expand their applications. The home-made robots (the maid) available today may


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