# Logic, option 3

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# Description

The theoretical part
1.Tema "Inference as a form of thinking"
1.1.Opredelenie conclusions. Types of reasoning
1.2.Vidy concepts
2.Tema "The basic laws of logic '
2.1.Zakon contradiction and the law of the excluded middle

The practical part
Task 1. Give the logical characteristics of the concept (in scope and content). Explain in writing:
Moscow city
constellation
darkness
Dragon
a bouquet of roses
Task 2. Set up and describe relationships between concepts represent them graphically (justify the choice of writing):
a) a square and a rectangle of an equilateral
b) high school number 5 and school
) An intelligent man, and stupid people.
Task 3. Give the definition. Explain in writing:
Prestigious educational institutions
Mammals
Big city
Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences
A bright star called stars observed from the Earth and different apparent magnitude.
A talented person - a person who has certain abilities, which are disclosed to the acquisition of skills and experience.
Task 4. In these judgments to determine the form, get the subject, predicate, quantifier words, and draw a bunch of pie Euler scheme for the following propositions (selection justify in writing):
a) Textbooks can not be entertaining books.
b) Antarctica is ice continent.
c) King bell set east of the Ivan the Great Bell.
Task 5. Determine what method of proof used in the following situations. Justify your answer in writing.
1. The word "water" in its origin Common Slavonic. If it were not so, then the word (in different variations) did not occur to long in all Slavic languages. However, the word "water" already, but is used in all Slavic languages \u200b\u200b(Belarusian 'vada', Polish «woda», Czech and Slovak «voda» and so on. D.). Thus, the assumption that this word is not Common Slavonic, wrongly; therefore, it Common Slavonic. Consequently, it is Common Slavonic.
2. mathematical quiz was attended by about a hundred students. Leading by offering all participants to conceive any two-digit number, he argued that these numbers will not be two identical. The second drive does not agree with this statement and invited all participants to write a quiz conceived numbers on pieces of paper for comparison. One of the students took to refute the assertion of the first driving without actually checking. "If the numbers are not conceived to be two identical, - he said - if there are more than 90 two-digit numbers, because we are more than 90 people; od it is known that two-digit numbers can not be greater than 90; consequently, of the numbers written by the participants of the quiz, must meet the same.
3. This vehicle overturned as a result of heavy braking. The reasons for overturning the vehicle may be speeding on corners, sharp braking, incorrect placement of cargo. Examination found that no speeding on bends or improper location of the goods has not taken place. Hence, the reason for overturning the vehicle was a sharp deceleration.
4. Every evaporation (steam formation) is accompanied by absorption of heat, since the vaporization surface layer molecules of liquid pulled into the space above it, overcoming the resistance of the adhesion forces and to overcome any resistance required energy consumption.

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