"... - Well, the study of this case we hit the two points in the story of a young McCarthy, although they have set me in his favor, and you antagonized him. Firstly, that the father cried, "Kou!", Before he saw his son. Secondly, that the dying have mentioned only a rat. You see, he muttered a few words, but caught only one son. Our investigation should start with these two points. Let us assume that all the young man said, - the absolute truth.
- And what is "kou"?
- Obviously, he was not called his son. He thought that his son was in Bristol. Son accidentally heard the call. This shouting "Kou!" He called to the one who appointed him a date. But "kou" - Australian word is in vogue only among Australians. This is strong evidence that the man had hoped to meet McCarthy at Boscombe whirlpool, visited Australia.
- Well, a rat?
Sherlock Holmes took out a folded piece of paper, spread it on the table.
- This is a map of Victoria - he said. - I wired to Bristol last night, that I sent her. - He closed his hand over part of the map.
- Read, - he said.
- ARET - I read.
- And now? - He raised his hand.
- Quite true. This is the word spoken dying, but a son only caught the last two syllables. He tried to name the killer. So Ballaret.
- This is awesome! - I cried.
- It is beyond any doubt. And now, as you can see, the range is narrowed.
The presence of the offender gray robe was the third item. Disappears complete unknown, and there is some of the Australian Ballareta in gray coat.
- Besides, he's a local resident because beside the pool, in addition to farm and manor house, nothing, and hardly a stranger to wander.
- Of course.
- Then our mission today. Exploring the way, I have found little evidence of that and told that stupid Lestrade. This included the identification of the offender.
- But how do you spot them?
- You know my method. It is based on a comparison of all the small clues.
- On its growth course you can judge about the length of the step. His shoes also could guess from the tracks.
- Yes, it was unusual shoes.
- And what he lame?
- Traces of his right leg is not as distinct as the traces left. On the right foot falls less weight Why? Because he limped - he was lame.
- And the fact that he is left-handed?
- You were impressed by the character of damage described by the surgeon. The blow was inflicted suddenly back, but on the left side. Who could have done it, but the left-hander? During a conversation between father and son, he was standing behind a tree. He even smoked there. I found the ashes thanks to my knowledge of various grades of tobacco found that he was smoking a cigar Indian. I, as you know, a little bit involved in this issue and wrote a monograph on the ashes of one hundred and forty different varieties of pipe, cigar and cigarette tobacco. Finding a cigar ashes, I looked all around and found the place where he left her. It was an Indian cigar made in Rotterdam.
- A mouthpiece?
- I saw that he did not take it into his mouth. Consequently, he smokes a cigarette holder. The tip was cut off, not bitten off, but the cut was uneven, so I decided that he had a blunt knife.
- Holmes - I said - you are entangled network of criminals, from which he can not escape, and you saved the life of any innocent young man, you just removed the noose from his neck. I can see where all your evidence. The killer's name ... "
(A. Conan Doyle The Boscombe Valley Mystery http://lib.ru/AKONANDOJL/sh_boskd.txt)