PERFUMES (перевод с энциклопедии)
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PERFUMES (21 страница перевода с англ на русский)
NAICS: 32-5620 Toilet Preparation Manufacturing
SIC: 2844 Perfumes, Cosmetics, and Other Toilet Preparations Manufacturing NAICS-Based Product Codes: 32-56204111. 32-56204121, 32-56204131, 32-562042: and 32— %204211
Perfume products are substances that emit pleasant aromas. While fragrant liquids used for the body are generally referred to as perfumes, the product may actually be a perfume, a perfume oil mixture or blend, a cologne or toilet water. Perfumes are classified based on the ratio of aroma to alcohol and water. Regardless of how they are classed, all perfumes are characterized by their top notes, heart notes, and base notes.
Perfumes have been used for thousands of years. The word perfume comes from the Latin words for through smoke, per fume. Many of the early uses of perfumes were connected to religious ceremonies and involved burning incense or herbs. The pleasant smell of citrus oil squeezed from the rind of a fruit onto the skin was an early form of body perfume. The nineteenth and twentieth centuries were a turning point in perfume manufacturing. Coty, now the top U.S. perfume manufacturer, was established in Paris in 1904 and is considered to be the founder of the modern perfume industry. Perfume making was influenced, like all manufacturing, by the spread of automation, the development of mass production, and advancements in chemistry. Modern chemistry laid the foundations of perfumery as we know it today.
Perfume is part of the $28 billion annual market for toilet preparation products in the United States. Perfume is a toilet preparation product based on the French term toilette, which refers both to the room where the toilet is, and activities connected to that room. As a result, toiletries refers to the broad class of products used as part of performing one´s toilette and includes perfumes and toilet waters. The value of all shipments of toilet products is provided in a U.S. Census Bureau report titled «Toilet Preparation Manufacturing: 2002»: The major toilette product categories are presented in Figure 169 by shipment, and by percentage, depicted by the pie slice, of the total industry. Perfumes in 2002 accounted for 10 percent, or $2.9 billion, of the $28 billion per year toiletries industry.
New fragrances are developed and introduced into the marketplace every year. The early twenty-first century saw increased activity in the perfume industry. For instance, more than 170 high-end fragrances were launched in 2005, according to a report summarized by Crain´s Chicago Business in November 2006. Top manufacturers of perfume in the United States are Chanel, Coty, Estee Lauder, and Procter & Gamble.
Chanel. France-based Chanel is synonymous with high quality, high-end, prestige products. Chanel stays away from the mass market fearing that association with the lower end of the market can hurt sales. Chanel is a retailing and cultural icon, relying on the mythology surrounding Coco Chanel, the radically chic
MATERIALS & SUPPLY CHAIN LOGISTICS
The materials used by manufacturers to create a perfume include the chemicals needed to make the product itself as well as the materials used to make the packaging. Perfume bottles are designed by manufacturers to reflect the character of the fragrance inside, whether light and flowery or dark and musky. As a whole, the $28 billion annual toiletries industry spent $8.0 billion in 2002 on the materials needed to make all kinds of toiletries, including perfume. Of this, $5.6 billion was spent on packaging, and $2.4 billion was spent on ingredients. The toiletries industry spends 70 percent on packaging, and 30 percent on buying ingredients that go into the product. The primary categories of ingredients needed to make toiletries of all kinds, according to data reported by the U.S. Census Bureau are, from largest to smallest in terms of industry-wide spending:
• Perfume oil mixtures and b
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
TARGET MARKETS & SEGMENTATION
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