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Загружен: 07.05.2015
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A high school teacher asked her student to describe a bank. The first student replied, "It´s a place to keep your money." The second said, "It´s a place where you write checks against the money you have on deposit." A third offered, "It´s a place where you borrow money." Each student gave a correct answer. In the simplest terms they described the basic functions of banking: accepting deposits, processing checks and lending money. The students recognized that banks provide a service for those in need of a finance-related product.
Deposit accounts come in many forms. There are savings accounts, checking accounts, payroll accounts, business accounts, foreign currency accounts and trust accounts to name a few. Most offer checking privileges, others only passbook withdrawals. Some pay interest while others do not. Regardless of the type of account, the purpose is basically the same. People find bank accounts are safe and convenient for depositing checks and cash.
The types of borrowing accounts are just as diverse. Banks make loans to individuals to buy such things as cars, furniture, and appliances. They also make loans to business, to manufacturers, builders, merchants and loans to foreign countries.
Banks are different in different countries. In the United States of America, for example, commercial banks come in two main groups: national and state banks. National banks are chartered and supervised by the Federal Government. All nationally chartered commercial banks must hold membership in the central banking system - Federal Reserve System. State banks are chartered and supervised by the state in which they operate. State-chartered banks may join the Federal Reserve System provided that certain requirements are met.



On deposit, to borrow money, to process checks, to provide a service for, deposit accounts, foreign currency accounts, for depositing cash, to make loans, commercial banks, state banks, are supervised by, are chartered by, Federal Reserve System, national banks, to hold membership in, manufacturers, trust accounts, state-chartered banks.


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1.What are the basic functions of banking?
2.Who do banks provide services for?
3.What is the purpose of any account?
4.What forms do deposit accounts come in?
5.Do all deposit accounts offer checking privileges?
6.What is a borrowing account?
7.Who do banks make loans to?
8.What two main groups do banks in the USA come in?
9.Who are national banks chartered and supervised by?
10.Can state-chartered banks join the Federal Reserve System?

Дополнительная информация


The system of financial institutions established to serve as a central bank _______
A form of bank account set up to enable the depositor to draw checks against the balance maintained _______
A bank account intended primarily for accumulation of savings _______


Bank is one _____ many financial institutions which performs a variety _____ services such as lending, borrowing, caring _____ money, acting as a depositary _____ valuables, financing business operations and so on. Banks may be chartered under the laws _____ the state _____ which they are located, or _____ the National Bank Act. In the latter case, the bank is permitted to use the term national bank _____ its title.
Bank which occupies a central position _____ the monetary and financial system _____ the country _____ which it operates is called Central bank. Usually it is controlled _____ the government and has power to issue currency and supervise other banks. The nearest thing _____ a central bank _____ the USA is the Federal Reserve System.


Federal Reserve System is (1) _____ in the United States, the "Fed", established by the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 and comprising the 12 district Federal Reserve Banks and their 24 branch offices, the Federal Reserve Board of Governors in Washington, D.C, the Federal Open Market Committee, the Federal Advisory Council, and member banks owning stock in the Federal Reserve Bank in their region. (2) _____ have the option of becoming (3) _____ although only about 1,100 state chartered banks have done so.
As its name implies, the Federal Reserve System is a federal (4), _____ with operational responsibilities shared by the Board of Governors and the 12 regional banks. The Federal Reserve System regulates the cost and availability of (5) _____ through monetary policy decisions of the Federal Open Market Committee; sets the (6) _____ banks pay when borrowing from a Federal Reserve Bank; approves interstate banking mergers; supervises bank holding companies, and oversees (7) _____ through agreements with other central banks.
Loans are the flip side of deposit. In fact, the main reason chartered banks put so much effort into building deposits is to have funds available for borrowers. Loans help to fuel the economy. When the owner of a corporation or an individual borrows money to build houses, manufacture appliances, make clothing, buy Christmas inventory or feed beef cattle he/she puts money into circulation. All of these activities create employment, which is generated into production, wages, buying power. Eventually, some of the wages come back to the financial institutions in the form of savings; so lending is really a cyclical activity. Loans are made for a variety of terms and conditions. For example, a sporting goods store owner borrows money early in the winter to buy golf equipment which is sold in the spring. This is a short-term loan and sales receipts are used to repay the loan. Short-term loans are made for a period of less than one year, usually at a fixed rate of interest. There are long-term loans such as mortgage loans where payment may be stretched over a five-year period and repaid from a borrower´s salary or from tenant´s rent.
Mortgage lending arrived on the banking scene in 1954 when the chartered banks were authorized to make mortgage loans. The basic mortgage loan was often made to a bank customer who wanted to build or buy a house. The customer made the required down payment and the bank supplied the rest of the funds using the property as security.


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