Spurs - answers to questions "History and Philosophy of Science"

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Spurs. Answers to the 43 questions to the candidate examinations on "The History and Philosophy of Science" direction of machinery and engineering science.
1. Subject of the philosophy of science
2. Basic concepts of contemporary philosophy of science.
3. The modern theory of knowledge: the essence and problems.
4. The diversity of forms of knowledge and their specificity.
5. The specificity of scientific knowledge. The problem of demarcation.
6. Methods of demarcation knowledge.
7. The emergence of science.
8. Stages of the historical evolution of science.
9. Three aspects of life science.
10. Scientific rationality. Rationalism as the essence of European science.
11. Scientism and anti-scientism.
12. Classic stage of development of science
13. Non-classical phase of the development of science.
14. postnonclassical stage of development of science.
15. The structure of scientific knowledge.
16. The levels of scientific knowledge and methods.
17. The logic and dynamics of scientific research.
18. The language of science. Natural and artificial languages.
19. The knowledge and creativity. Scientific creativity.
20. Traditions and innovations in science. The types of innovations.
21. Scientific Revolution. The essence and peculiarities.
22. The unity and integrity of scientific knowledge: the problem of humanization.
23. Origin and essence of positivism.
24. Neopositivism and postpositivism.
25. Differentiation and integration of sciences.
26. The methodology of research programs I. Lakatos
27. The concept of the development of scientific knowledge of Karl Popper.
28. The concept of tacit knowledge Polanyi.
29. The concept of scientific knowledge Feyerabend.
30. Socio-cultural factors of science
31. The subject of philosophy of technology. Technology as a tool. Technology in the system of social relations.
32. What is the technique? The problem of meaning and the essence of technology, "technical" and "non-technical", "natural" and "artificial".
33. The mechanistic picture of the world, a mechanistic philosophy and philosophy of production E.Kapp - the concept of art as a projection of the human organs.
34. Visual art culture: the traditional culture and design. F.Dessauera concept and the concept of art as belonging to the divine creation.
35. Interference of technical and natural sciences. The first technical science as applied science. Ortega y Gasset: reflections on the art.
36. The specifics of the ratio of theoretical and empirical in the technical sciences. Features of technical theory. Heidegger and the theory of "theoretical machinery".
37. Engineering activities in the light of the ethical and social responsibility. Concept J. Ellul.
38. The specifics of technocratic thinking, scientific and technical progress and the future of humanity: the options forecasts. Concept L. Memforda.
39. The development of the system and cybernetic concepts in the art. Engineering and Mathematics.
40. Information theory and cybernetics (Concept: Wiener, Ashby, A. Turing, John. Beglou et al.'s Choice).
41. The specifics of computer modeling and numerical simulation. Technical and mathematical models.
42. The problem of reality in science. Virtual reality, information-communicative reality.
43. The philosophical meaning of the concept of cyberspace online. Synergetic Paradigm "order and chaos" on the Internet.


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