Texts for 7 Medical Institute (Translation)

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Text 1. Microorganisms
All the existing microorganisms can be divided into two main groups - aerobic and anaerobic. Aerobic microorganisms must have atmospheric free oxygen for their life and growth. However one knows that free oxygen is not favourable for the development of anaerobic microorganisms.
Bacteria vary in shape and according to this feature they are divided into some groups. Spherical bacteria have been called cocci. They are also subdivided into several groups. Rod-shaped (rod-shaped) bacteria are called bacilli.
When bacteria multiply they divide. The growing organism increases in size up to a certain limit and in due time divides. The process of division depends on the conditions of the environment.
Any minute (smallest) virulent microorganisms may invade the human body. But due to the local protective agents of the human organism they are destroyed. In this case no disease occurs.
However the local protective agents of the human organism are not always able to destroy completely the invading microorganisms. It is known that in such a case a local or general infection may occur.
Most of the microorganisms produce diseases when they enter the tissue and destroy it. If one examines under the microscope the alveoli of the lung of the man with lobar pneumonia a great number of pneumococci can be revealed. While the disease persists the lung may be considerably impaired because of the consolidations which may develop in it.
But the human organism can fight against the microorganisms which have passed its first protective barriers, ie skin and mucous membranes.
The prominent Russian scientist 1.1. Mechnikov had made many investigations before he was able to come to the conclusion that leucocytes could catch and destroy certain microbes. 1.1. Mechnikov called them phagocytes or microbe cell destroyers.

Robert Koch
Robert Koch is a prominent German bacteriologist, the founder of modem microbiology. He was bom in 1843, died in 1910. When Koch became a doctor he carried on many experiments on mice (mice) in a small laboratory. In 1882 Koch discovered tuberculosis bacilli. In his report made in the Berlin Physiological Society Koch described in detail the morphology of tuberculosis bacilli and the ways to reveal them. Due to his discovery Koch became known all over the world. In 1884 Koch published his book on cholera. This book included the investigations of his research work carried out during the cholera epidemic in Egypt and India. From the intestines of the men with cholera Koch isolated a small comma-shaped (in the form of a comma) bacterium. He determined that these bacteria spread through drinking water. In 1905 Koch got the Nobel prize for his important scientific discoveries.

Text C. The Founder of Virology
Dmitry losiphovitch Ivanovsky, a prominent Russian scientist, was bom in 1864. In 1888 he graduated from Petersburg University and began to study the physiology of plants and microbiology.
When DI Ivanovsky was investigating the tobacco mosaic disease (tobacco mosaic disease) he was able to come to the conclusion that this disease occurred due to a microscopic agent, many times smaller than bacteria.
To prove this phenomenon DI Ivanovsky had to make many experiments on various plants. He had to pass the Juice of the diseased plant through a fine filter which could catch the smallest bacteria. At that time a little over 70 years ago everybody considered that bacteria were the smallest living organisms. But when DI Ivanovsky had completed to pass the juice through a fine filter, he was able to come to conclusion that the living organisms smaller than bacteria existed in the environment, because when he introduced the filtrate of the diseased plants to healthy ones they became infected .
Before DI Ivanovsky nobody had been able to prove the existence of viruses ... ....

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Text D
If there are no wounds on the skin no bacteria can invade it. But if any smallest wound exists then bacteria can pass into the tissue. The thin membranes about the eye, in the nose and throat have less protective properties against bacterial invasion and infection may often develop in these points.
The way by which a microorganism enters the human body is an important factor to determine the occurrence of any disease. Certain bacteria can persist and develop in the human body only coming into contact with the respiratory tract, others through contact with the mucus of the intestines.
The skin and mucus membranes of the body have a large number of bacteria, some of them are highly pathogenic in a favourable environment. The spread of these bacteria is controlled by the skin and phagocytes fighting against the invaders.
Fleming called this substance penicillin. It is of the same family of moulds that often appear on dry bread.
But many investigations had been carried out before a method of extracting pure penicillin was found. It was also very difficult for Fleming to interest biologists and mould experts in penicillin and to decide the problem of its production.
In 1942 Fleming tried his own first experiment. A friend of his was very ill, dying. After several injections of penicillin the man was cured. It marked the beginning of penicillin treatment.
Fleming received the Nobel Prize for his great discovery. But he said: "Everywhere I go people thank me for saving their lives. I do not know why they do it. I did not do anything. Nature makes penicillin. I only found it. "


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