The control of English. Option 2

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Variant 2

1. Turn suggestions on the Russian language, paying attention to the temporal form of the verb. Note the verb and specify the time.

1. Dry powders are very effective on Class D fires.
2. They will have much work to do next week.
3. Our cadets have already come back from their holidays.
4. The rescuers had performed their operation by 18 pm yesterday.
5. Every year a lot of fires occur because of people.
6. The fire gave humans the first form of portable light and heat.
7. Mr. Smith is looking for a job of a crew chief these days.
8. We were having our marching drills the whole morning yesterday.
9. Great fires in Europe hastened the development of the fire engine.

2. Make two general issues and two special issues 2 negative proposal to the assertions of the Quest 1.

3. Put the adjectives in parentheses to the appropriate degree of comparison. Turn suggestions on the Russian language.

1. Which is (effective) extinguishing agent to put out flammable liquids?
2. That fire was (bad) the firefighters ever faced.
3. (Many) and (many) natural disasters occur every year.
4. Our educational institution is one of the (old) in the city.
5. Gases which are (heavy) than air can be used to blanket fire.
6. Fires travelling (slow) uphill are an exception to the rule.

4. Turn words into Russian and determine to what parts of speech they belong. Specify preformative suffix or prefix.

1. combustion -combustible - sombustibility
2. gas - gaseous
3. protect - protection- protective
4. proper - improper - properly
5. harm - harmful - harmless

5. Rewrite the following sentences, underline the modal verbs and their equivalents. Turn suggestions on the Russian language.

1. He is to make a report on Friday.
2. The informed fire officer, his control of the situation can have a calming effect on people.
3. The will be able to finish this work in a couple of days.
4. Care should be taken in the laboratory not to inhale hydrogen sulphide.
5. The fire brigade must arrive at the place of fire very quickly.

6. Rewrite the following sentences and translate them into Russian. Emphasize verb in the passive voice.

1. His speech was listened to very attentively.
2. I was told that the meeting had been attended by the general.
3. Are the new inventions that our scientists are working at used in our industry?
4. Mass is measured in grams or kilograms.
5. Drums containing petrol must not be left open.

7. Rewrite the proposal by the sacrament desired shape. Specify the type of communion. Turn suggestions on the Russian language.

1. The monument (designing, designed) by Wren is 202 feet high.
2. A (falling, fallen) piece of paper comes to the ground less quickly than a piece of wood.
3. The children came in (pushing, pushed) each other.
8. Turn suggestions on the Russian language, paying attention to the translation of a gerund.

1. A protractor is used for measuring angles.
2. He does not show any interest in studying law.
3. The motor kept on rotating owing to its inertia.
4. Heating copper wire from 0 to 100oC increases its resistance about 40%.
5. Catalysts aid in accelerating reactions.

9. Rewrite the proposals emphasize the infinitive. Turn suggestions on the Russian language, paying attention to the function of the infinitive.

1. The surface tension of water is strong enough to let a steel needle float on water.
2. He is the man to rely upon.
3. Pressure causes ice to melt.
4. To explain this simple fact is not very easy.
5. Metallic sodium is a white metal soft enough to be easily cut with a knife.
6. Mention is to be made of the high boiling point of this liquid.

Additional information

10. Read the text.

Fire Extinguishing Theory
The extinguishment of fires is based on an interruption of one or more fire ingredients. With flaming combustion the fire may be extinguished by reducing temperature, eliminating fuel or oxygen, or by stopping the uninhibited chemical chain reaction. If a fire is in the smoldering phase, only three extinguishment options exist: reduction of temperature, elimination of fuel, or oxygen.
One of the most common methods of extinguishment by cooling is dependent on cooling the fuel to a point where it does not produce sufficient vapor to burn. Solid fuels and liquid fuels with high flash points can be extinguished by cooling. Low flash point liquids and flammable gases can not be extinguished by cooling with water as vapor production can not be sufficiently reduced.
Reduction of temperature is dependent on the application of an adequate flow in proper form to establish a negative heat balance.
In some cases, a fire is effectively extinguished by removing the fuel source. This may be done by stopping the flow of liquid or gaseous fuel or by removing solid fuel in the path of the fire. Another method of fuel removal is to allow the fire to burn until all fuel is consumed.
The method of extinguishment by oxygen dilution is the reduction of the oxygen concentration in the fire area. This can be accomplished by introducing an inert gas into the fire or by separating the oxygen from the fuel. This method of extinguishment will not work on self-oxidizing materials or on certain metals as they are oxidized by carbon dioxide or nitrogen, the two most common extinguishing agents.

11. Find the text (reference number 10) and write English equivalents to these phrases.

1. firefighting
2. flaming combustion
3. The removal of combustible material or oxygen
4. Continuous chain reaction
5. Phase corruption
6. The decrease in temperature
7. solid combustible substance
8. high flash point
9. flammable gases
10. The negative thermal balance
11. The removal of the fuel source
12. The decrease in the concentration of oxygen
13. The introduction of an inert gas
14. samookislyayuschiesya substance
15. extinguishing agents

12. Complete the offer by the right word. Turn suggestions on the Russian language.

cooling removing diluting reducing smoldering

1. Sometimes, a fire is effectively extinguished by _____ the fuel source.
2. A nozzle is used with a hose to _____ a fire spray of water.
3. _____ of temperature is one of the firefighting options in flaming combustion.
4. Last stage of a burning process is a _____ phase.
5. _____ is the reduction of the oxygen concentration in the fire area.

13. Answer the questions to the text of the job №10.

1. What is the extinguishment of fire based on?
2. How can you put out the fire with flaming combustion?
3. What is the most common method of extinguishment?
4. Why can not you use water on low flash point liquids and flammable gases?
5. What does the method of extinguishment by oxygen dilution mean?

14. Put the sentences in English, using the vocabulary of the text (the task №10).

1. At the stage of decay, there are three possibilities to stop the fire: temperature reduction, removal of combustible material or oxygen.
2. Introduction of inert gas to reduce the oxygen concentration of the fire.
3. Combustible material with a high flash point can be extinguished by cooling.
4. In the case of a combustion flame quenching methods is to interrupt the chain of chemical reactions.
5. The most common extinguishing agent is water.

15. Read the text and make a summary in English, based on the following plan:

1. The title of the article, the author.
The title of the article is ... - ... Article Title
The article under discussion is ... - The article, which I now want to discuss ...
The author of the article is ... - The author


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