TSU English control number 1 for accountants

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Uploaded: 20.08.2012
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Description

Упражнение 1

MONEY
The work which people undertake provides them with money. People buy essential commodities with money. All values in the economic system are measured in terms of money. Our goods and services are sold for money, and that money is in its turn exchanged for other goods and services. Coins are adequate for small transactions, while paper notes are used for general business. Originally, a valuable Metal (gold, silver or copper) served as a constant store of value, and even today the American dollar is technically backed by the store of gold which the US government maintains. Because gold has been universally regarded as a very valuable metal, national currencies were for many years judged in terms of the so called "gold standard". Nowadays national currencies are considered to be as strong as the national economies which support them.

Valuable metal has generally been replaced by paper notes. These notes are issued by government and authorized banks, and are known as legal tender. Other arrangements such as cheques arid money orders are not legal tender. They perform the function of substitute money and are known as instruments of credit. Credit is offered only when creditors believe that they have a good chance of obtaining legal tender when they present such instruments at a bank or other authorized institutions. If a man’s assets are known to be considerable, then his credit will be good. If his assets are in doubt, then it may be difficult for him to obtain large sums of credit or even to pay for goods with the cheque.

The value of money is basically its value as a medium of exchange or as economists put it, its “purchasing power”. This purchasing power is dependent on supply and demand. The demand of money is reckonable as the quantity needed to effect business transactions. The demand for money is related to the rapidity with which the business is done. The supply of money is the actual amount in notes and coins available for business purposes. If too much money is available, its value decreases. This condition is known as “inflation”.

FUNCTIONS OF MONEY
People accept money in exchange for goods and services. But the role of money depends on the state of development of an economy. Money has become an essential element of economies based on the division of labor, in which individuals have specialized in certain activities and enterprises have focused on manufacturing specific goods and rendering specific services. In order to make transactions as simple and efficient as possible, the introduction of a generally accepted medium of exchange suggested itself.
Money performs the function of a medium of exchange or means of payment with goods being exchanged for money and money for goods. At the same time it also acts as a unit of account.
Money is a store of value, as part of an individual’s income may be set aside for future consumption.
These three functions of money - medium of exchange, unit of account and store of value – can only be fulfilled if there is great confidence in its stability of value. Safeguarding monetary stability is the primacy task of the central banks all over the world. Moreover, the central bank has the function of regulating the money supply in order to guarantee a smooth functioning of the monetary system.

Additional information

Упражнение 1

MONEY
The work which people undertake provides them with money. People buy essential commodities with money. All values in the economic system are measured in terms of money. Our goods and services are sold for money, and that money is in its turn exchanged for other goods and services. Coins are adequate for small transactions, while paper notes are used for general business. Originally, a valuable Metal (gold, silver or copper) served as a constant store of value, and even today the American dollar is technically backed by the store of gold which the US government maintains. Because gold has been universally regarded as a very valuable metal, national currencies were for many years judged in terms of the so called "gold standard". Nowadays national currencies are considered to be as strong as the national economies which support them.

Valuable metal has generally been replaced by paper notes. These notes are issued by government and authorized banks, and are known as legal tender. Other arrangements such as cheques arid money orders are not legal tender. They perform the function of substitute money and are known as instruments of credit. Credit is offered only when creditors believe that they have a good chance of obtaining legal tender when they present such instruments at a bank or other authorized institutions. If a man’s assets are known to be considerable, then his credit will be good. If his assets are in doubt, then it may be difficult for him to obtain large sums of credit or even to pay for goods with the cheque.

The value of money is basically its value as a medium of exchange or as economists put it, its “purchasing power”. This purchasing power is dependent on supply and demand. The demand of money is reckonable as the quantity needed to effect business transactions. The demand for money is related to the rapidity with which the business is done. The supply of money is the actual amount in notes and coins available for business purposes. If too much money is available, its value decreases. This condition is known as “inflation”.

FUNCTIONS OF MONEY
People accept money in exchange for goods and services. But the role of money depends on the state of development of an economy. Money has become an essential element of economies based on the division of labor, in which individuals have specialized in certain activities and enterprises have focused on manufacturing specific goods and rendering specific services. In order to make transactions as simple and efficient as possible, the introduction of a generally accepted medium of exchange suggested itself.
Money performs the function of a medium of exchange or means of payment with goods being exchanged for money and money for goods. At the same time it also acts as a unit of account.
Money is a store of value, as part of an individual’s income may be set aside for future consumption.
These three functions of money - medium of exchange, unit of account and store of value – can only be fulfilled if there is great confidence in its stability of value. Safeguarding monetary stability is the primacy task of the central banks all over the world. Moreover, the central bank has the function of regulating the money supply in order to guarantee a smooth functioning of the monetary system.

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