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Английский, вариант 3 (SOLAR ENERGY)

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Контрольная работа №3
по английскому языку для студентов всех технических специальностей заочного отделения
Вариант 3
III семестр
I. Прочитайте и переведите текст (устно).
SOLAR ENERGY
Solar power, also known as solar energy, is the technology of obtaining usable energy from the light of the sun. Solar energy has been used in many traditional ways for centuries, and has come into widespread use where other power supplies are absent, such as in remote locations and space. Solar energy has a number of applications including
• Heat (hot water, heating building, cooking)
• Electricity generation (photovoltaic, heat engines)
• Desalination of sea water
Solar power is an extremely clean way to generate electricity. There are no air emissions associated with operation of solar modules. Photovoltaic, solar water heating systems reduce power generation from traditional sources and associated environmental impacts. Solar thermal energy is one of the best ways to lower carbon dioxide content and to protect the environment. Typically, greenhouse gas emissions from heating water account for over 70%. A solar water heater is one of the most influential and economical ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. There are a few of the environmental reasons to install a solar thermal system:
• To reduce greenhouse gas emission.
• Two-collector domestic hot water systems can offset over 2 tons of CO2 per year or 50 tons over life of the system.
• On-site generation, that is to reduce the need to mine and transport fossil fuel energy.
• Increased water heater life expectancy.
When comparing the merits of water heating systems, it is important to differentiate between capital and running costs. Conventional water heating systems tend to be cheap to install, but require the purchase of fuel. Fuel prices are currently low, but will rise in future. Solar thermal heating systems seem to be more expensive to install, but don’t need any fuel. A solar thermal system will incur very low running costs, and the payback on the capital costs will be better, because fuel costs of oil or gas systems go up over the time.

II. Выберите правильный вариант ответа на вопросы к тексту.
1. How could “solar power” be defined?
a) “non-renewable” source of energy
b) the technology of producing energy from the sun light
c) power engineering dealing with conventional systems consuming fuel
2. What is solar power used for?
a) heating buildings and generating electricity
b) only for heating domestic water
c) electricity production in the northern countries with long-lasting winters
b) 25 – 30
3. What advantage can be taken of the solar energy application?
a) to reduce the expenditures on fossil fuels extraction
b) to be a good alternative to a wind power
c) to have a bad impact on the environment

III. Закончите предложения по содержанию прочитанного текста.
4. One of the reasons to install a solar thermal system is________.
a) to cut the installation costs
b) to decrease the service life of the heating system
c) to increase water heater operation life
5. Solar power is the best way ________.
a) to solve health problems b) to reduce CO2 emission c) to generate electricity worldwide
6. The prices of fossil fuels are expected ________ in the nearest future.
a) level off
b) to fluctuate
c) to go up sharply

IV. Подберите эквивалент к данному русскому слову или словосочетанию.
7. достоинство, преимущество, заслуга
a) merit b) quality c) guaranty
8. выработка/производство энергии
a) electricity transportation b) energy distribution c) power generation
9. насчитывать, составлять
a) to average
b) to take into account
c) to account for
10. уменьшать, понижать
a) lower b) low c) low-down
11. текущие расходы, эксплуатационные издержки
a) business expenditures b) running costs c) labour costs
12. связано с, требует
13. ископаемое топливо

Дополнительная информация

V. Выберите соответствующее определение данным словам и терминам.
a) impact
b) conventional systems
c) capital costs
d) to mine
e) the heater life expectancy
f) on-site energy generation
g) widespread
h) greenhouse gas
14. gas that stops heat from escaping into atmosphere and causes global warming
15. the production of electricity in a particular area or place
16. an effect or influence
17.equipment that is usually used or has been in use for a long time
18. the period of time the heater is likely to operate
19. something that exists or happens over a large area, or to a great extent
20.to extract or obtain minerals from the ground by digging deep holes or tunnels
21. money spent by a business on buying equipment, buildings and etc.

VI. Прочитайте предложения и укажите соответствует ли данное утверждение действительности: если соответствует напишите после предложения T- true, если не соответствует то F- false, при этом письменно подтвердите ваш ответ примером из текста.
22. Solar cells can be used in remote areas where there are no power transmission lines.
23. Solar energy can be applied for sea water desalination.
24. It costs too much to maintain solar collectors, so it takes a long time to make profits from investments.

VII. Выберите правильную видовременную форму глагола.
25. Britain ………… for a new form of energy in recent years.
a) has been looking for b) were risen c) raised
26. The British usually ……… fossil fuels and ……… nuclear stations.
a) are burning and building b) burns and builds c) burn and build
27. Wind power ………… as an alternative source of energy in Holland for many years.
a) has been used b) is used c) is being used
28. In a few years Britain ……completely ……. the advantage of wind power.
a) don’t take b) won’t take c) not take
29. At present they ………… two wind turbines.
a) install b) will have installed c) are installing

VIII. Заполните пропуски предлогами.
30. Since conventional water heaters are in use, greenhouse gas emissions account .... 70%.
a) on b) from c) for
31. Alternative energy sources are coming ….. everyday use.
a) to b) into c) back to
32. It is important to differentiate …… renewable and non-renewable sources of power.
a) from b) between c) among

IX. Заполните пропуски прилагательным или наречием в нужной форме.
33. How ……..power is supplied by nuclear plants in your country?
a) many b) big c) much
34. Britain is one of ……… countries in Europe.
a) the windiest b) the most windy c) windiest
35. There are ……. wind farms in Britain than in Denmark.
a) less b) more little c) fewer

X. Переведите текст письменно.
SOLLAR COLLECTORS
A solar collector is a device which collects sunlight and converts it into a heat. It consists of the following parts: 1. A glass cover made of either a single or double sheet of glass. 2. Water tubes. These are usually made of aluminium or steel. 3. A flat metal plate. This is painted black and usually made of aluminium, steel or copper. 4. Insulation. This can be any insulating material which can withstand temperatures up to 200oC. In India, for example, dried palm leaves have been used. 5. A casing that can be made of wood or metal.
The solar collector works in the following way:
1. It is fixed on the roof of the building.
2. The sunlight passes through the glass cover and strikes the black plate.
3. About 50% of energy is reflected back onto the glass.
4. The glass then reflects it back onto the plate.
5. This heats the water in the tubes.
6. The heated water in the tubes is fed into the heating

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