Английский, вариант 1 (The Antitrust Laws)
Содержимое: 40605200553243.rar (35,34 Кбайт)
I. Match these adjectives (1-5) with their synonyms (a-e)
1 voluntary a huge
2 key b traditional
3 vast c private
4 confidential d important
5 conventional c optional
II. Match the words (1 - 17) with their definitions (a – g).
1 expressly authorized a will not be fault of
2 provided that b the date something stops being valid or ends
3 shall inform c if this has been done
4 proprietor d if
5 expiry e given the legal power to do something
6 shall not involve the responsibility of f will tell
7 failing this g owner
III. Choose the correct options to complete this text, in which a lawyer explains what quiet enjoyment means to a client
For each number 1- 8, write the suitable word in the right column of the box:
Example: 1 normally
A covenant for quiet enjoyment is 1) normal/normally contained in any 2) good-/well-drafted lease. The term “quiet enjoyment” refers to the right of a tenant to use and enjoy a property and not to be interrupted by an act of the landlord. It doesn’t 3) actual/actually refer to noise, as you might think. For example, there are 4) specific/specifically things a landlord may not do, such as 5) continual/continually obstruct access to the premises. He is also not permitted to cut off or 6) persistent/persistently interrupt the gas or electricity supply. However, a 7) temporary/temporarily inconvenience does not qualify as breach of the covenant of quiet enjoyment, and so landlord is permitted to carry out 8) essential/essentially repairs, for example.
IV. Choose the correct preposition using the prepositions in the box:
through of by with to to
1 takes place … the issuance of shares
2 together…. the division of the share capital
3 opposed …. authorized capital
4 refers…. shares
5 held… shareholders
6 receive fixed capital irrespective … performance
V. Fill in the gaps with the word or phrase from the box below:
abide by oferror disclosed relevant securities offeree offer
You asked about dealing disclosure rules in takeovers. Below is a summary of rule 8.3 of the City Code on Takeovers and Merges, which everyone must 1)…….. or risk disciplinary action.
“ Under the provisions of Rule 8.3 of City Code on Takeovers and Merges ( the “Code”), if any person is, or becomes, “interested” (directly or indirectly) in 1% or more of any class of “relevant securities” of [ the offeror or of] the 2)……………company, all “dealings” in any “3)…………………..” of that company(including by means of an option in respect of, or a derivative referenced to, any such “relevant securities”) must be publicly 4)……………..by no later than 3.30 pm(London time) on the London business day following the date of the relevant transaction. This requirement will continue until the date on which the 5)……………. becomes, or is declared, unconditional as to acceptances, lapses or is otherwise withdrawn or on which the offer period” otherwise ends. If two or more persons act together pursuant to an agreement or understanding , whether formal or informal, to acquire an “interest” in “relevant securities” of [the 6)…………or] the offeree company, they will be deemed to be a single person for the purpose of Rule 8.3
VI. Match the beginnings and endings
1 They can either get rid
2 …or they may in some way express
3 All directors must answer
4 A two-tier board consists
5 The supervisory board is made
6 There is reliance
7 The supervisory boards are legally
VII. Complete these three complex sentences using the words in the box below each sentence.
1. Patents….rather different from … and….in that they have to be … to be…, patents give… to… others from…. or… using an … .
copyright trade marks registered invention prevent making enforceable invention rights
2. Trade …. give … … to use a … sign within a particular range of … or … – they generally do not … others … using the same … in unrelated …, and the … … prevent … of the public from using
VIII. Read and write the translation of the text below.
The Antitrust Laws
Congress passed the first antitrust law, the Sherman Act, in 1890 as a "comprehensive charter of economic liberty aimed at preserving free and unfettered competition as the rule of trade." In 1914, Congress passed two additional antitrust laws: the Federal Trade Commission Act, which created the FTC, and the Clayton Act. With some revisions, these are the three core federal antitrust laws still in effect today.
The antitrust laws proscribe unlawful mergers and business practices in general terms, leaving courts to decide which ones are illegal based on the facts of each case. Courts have applied the antitrust laws to changing markets, from a time of horse and buggies to the present digital age. Yet for over 100 years, the antitrust laws have had the same basic objective: to protect the process of competition for the benefit of consumers, making sure there are strong incentives for businesses to operate efficiently, keep prices down, and keep quality up.
Here is an overview of the three core federal antitrust laws.
The Sherman Act outlaws "every contract, combination, or conspiracy in restraint of trade," and any "monopolization, attempted monopolization, or conspiracy or combination to monopolize." Long ago, the Supreme Court decided that the Sherman Act does not prohibit every restraint of trade, only those that are unreasonable. For instance, in some sense, an agreement between two individuals to form a partnership restrains trade, but may not do so unreasonably, and thus may be lawful under the antitrust laws. On the other hand, certain acts are considered so harmful to competition that they are almost always illegal. These include plain arrangements among competing individuals or businesses to fix prices, divide markets, or rig bids. These acts are "per se" violations of the Sherman Act; in other words, no defense or justification is allowed.
The penalties for violating the Sherman Act can be severe. Although most enforcement actions are civil, the Sherman Act is also a criminal law, and individuals and businesses that violate it may be prosecuted by the Department of Justice. Criminal prosecutions are typically limited to intentional and clear violations such as when competitors fix prices or rig bids. The Sherman Act imposes criminal penalties of up to $100 million for a corporation and $1 million for an individual, along with up to 10 years in prison.
The Federal Trade Commission Act bans "unfair methods of competition" and "unfair or deceptive acts or practices." The Supreme Court has said that all violations of the Sherman Act also violate the FTC Act. Thus, although the FTC does not technically enforce the Sherman Act, it can bring cases under the FTC Act against the same kinds of activities that violate the Sherman Act. The FTC Act also reaches other practices that harm competition, but that may not fit neatly into categories of conduct formally prohibited by the Sherman Act. Only the FTC brings cases under the FTC Act.....
Mark the sentences True (T) or False (F)
1. There are three core federal antitrust laws in the USA.
2. The Sherman act does not impose criminal penalties.
3. The Clayton Act prohibits mergers and acquisitions when the effect "may be substantially to lessen competition, or to tend to create a monopoly."
IX. Watch the video using the link below:
Answer the question below:
Why was the computer chipmaker Intel fined by the Europian Comission?
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